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Full text of "The life of Lieut. Gen. T.J. Jackson [electronic resource]"

Library of 
Emory University 



224168 



DEC 6 '95* 





THE LIFE 




OF 



LIEUT. GEN. T. J JACKSOI 



BY AN EX-CADET. 



8 



RICHMOND, VA. 

PRINTED, AND PUBLISHED BY JAMBS E. ttOODH. 

1863. 




THE LIFE 



OP 



IEUT. GEN. T. J. JACKSON 



BY AN EX-CADET. 



RICHMOND, VA. 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY JAMBS B» GOOD1. 

18&3. 



Kntered according to an act of congress, by James B. Goode, in the clerk's 
office of the district court of the Confederate States, for the Eastern district 
of Virginia. 



ro 



LIEUTENANT-GENERA! R. S. EWELL, 



t ieiis book: 



DEDICATED, 



PREFACE 



The materials from which this book has been pre- 
pared have been collected since June 1861, though 
for a different purpose. 

Upon the death of General Jackson, the author de- 
termined to prepare a sketch of his life, a plan which 
he had had in contemplation for several months. 
He had fairly entered upon his task when he learned 
that a distinguished Southern author was engaged in 
a similar undertaking. 

Believing, however, that there is room enough in 
the South for two such books, he has continued his 
labor and*the result of it is now offered to the public. 

He had just put the work in press, when he was 
informed 'that another life of General Jackson, and 
one which is to be more elaborate than any yet pub- 
lished, was being prepared by the Reverend Doctor 
Dabney, formerly of General Jackson's staff. Feel- 
ing assured, however, that there is still room for his 



Yl PREFACE. 

book, he has persevered, and the work is at last 

TOO civ* 

He takes this opportunity of expressing his sin- 
cere wish that the narratives of both Major Cooke 
an d Doctor Dabney,may meet with the same success 
that he desires for his own. 

Many of the incidents related, came under the im- 
mediate observation of the author, and the remainder 
arfi drawn from authentic sources. 

The book was completed and put in press on the 
29th day of May, but the failure to procure paper, 
and other difficulties hard to overcome, have pre- 
vented its appearance at an earlier period. 



LIEUTENANT-GENERAL T. J JACKSON 



THE LIFE 



LIEUTENANT-GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSON. 



It would be difficult for any one to do justice to the narra- 
tion of such a life as that of Thomas J. Jackson — a life pure 
and spotless as the dew of the morning ; grand and glorious 
as the full blaze of the noontide sun. To a stranger such a 
task must be an impossibility ; and even one who knew and 
loved him, may well pause in dismay as he contemplates the 
magnitude of the task that he has imposed upon himself. 
Many will enter upon such an undertaking: some with a de- 
sire to preserve to the country and to the world a record of 
the services of a good and great man ; others from more sordid 
motives which in this age but too often invade the most sacred 
places. 

Among these there is room for one who kneAV and loved him, 
to offer his humble tribute to the glorious dead ; and though 
that tribute may be imperfect, it will at least be the labor of 
love, and as such, it is hoped, will prove acceptable to those 
to whom it is offered. 

General Jackson was of English descent. His great grand- 
father John Jackson, and his great grandmother, emigrated to 

this country at a very early day, and settled upon the south 

9 



10 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

■ ii,„,o long, how- 
bank of the 'Potomac. They did not remam there 1 ti 

i. .. ' i +„ ™W is now Lewis count}, m the 

ever, but soon removed to wnat- ib "«> 

western portion of Virginia. ^ Harrison CO unty, and 

Their son Edward was surveyoi ot liarr _ jr^ 

subsequently represented the county of Lewis in the legiBla- 

ture for several years. *,,•,, 

In earlv life, his son Jonathan Jackson, who had been born 
in Lewis county, moved to the town of Clarksburg in Harri- 
son county, for the purpose of studying law with his cousin 
Judo-e John Gr. Jackson of that place. In due time he re- 
ceived his license and entered upon the practice of his profes- 
sion with his cousin Judge Jackson. By his practice he ac- 
quired some reputation and property, and soon after entering 
upon his duties he married Miss Neal, a daughter of Thomas 
Neal of Wood county. By this lady he had four children — 
two sons and two daughters. 

Thomas Jonathan Jackson, the youngest of these chil- 
dren, was born in the town of Clarksburg in Harrison county, 
on the 21st day of January 1824. When he was scarcely 
three years old his father died, and his mother soon followed. 
Before his death Mr. Jackson had become involved as security 
for his friends, and his property was swept away. The chil- 
dren were thus left without any means of support. 

Shortly after the death of his parents, Thomas was taken by 
an uncle to Lewis county. This uncle was living on the farm 
on which the father of Thomas had been born, and there the 
orphan boy remained until he reached the age of seventeen 
years. During this period he spent a portion of his time in 
working on the farm, and the remainder in attending an old 
field school in the neighborhood, where he received the rudi- 
ments of a plain English education. 

From his earliest childhood he exhibited a remarkable de- 
gree of self-reliance and energy. He was quiet and reserved, 
but kind and gentle in his feelings and manners. He studied 
hard while at school, and was prompt and faithful in the dig- 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 11 

charge of his duties. These qualities exhibited in a,degree 
remarkable in one so young, could not fail to attract the at- 
tention and win the admiration of all with whom he was thrown. 
Nor were they allowed to jiass unrewarded. The people of 
Lewis. wishing to assist the young man so hravely struggling 
to raise himself in the world, conferred upon him the office of 
constable of the county when he was but sixteen years old. 
He accepted the appointment, and in spite of his extreme 
youth, discharged his new duties faithfully and with ability. 
There are some persons in this world to whom God gives na- 
tures and characters older and maturer than their years, and 
young Jackson was one of these. 

In his seventeenth year he solicited and received an appoint- 
ment as cadet in the military academy at West -Point, and to 
accept this position, resigned the office of constable. 

It is related of him, upon what seems to be good authority, 
that as soon as he heard there was a vacancy at West Point, 
he determined to secure it for himself. He immediately set 
out and walked a- long distance through rain and mud to a point 
from which he could take the stage to Washington city. Ar- 
riving there he sought out Mr. Hays, the member of congress 
for his district, and travel-stained and with his face flushed 
with excitement, presented himself before him and told him 
that he wanted the place at West Point then vacant. Aston- 
ished and amused by such a request coming from one who 
seemed so humble" and so unsuited to such a position, Mr. Hays 
entered into conversation with young Jackson and endeavored 
to dissuade him from trying to enter the West Point'academy. 
But the energetic youth was not to be discouraged, and in the 
conversation, evinced such a marked degree of intelligence, 
that his application was successful and he received the desired 
appointment. 

He entered the military academy in 1842, and remained 
there for four years. While there he was noted for his unwa- 
vering attention to his duties. His sense of duty was always 



12 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

very high, and his performance of it most faithful. It w *s 
necessary for him to study very hard. His mind had not r - 
ceived the advantage of an early education, and he had many 
difficulties to overcome. He was never content with a partial 
knowledge of any thing: his mind never relaxed Us grasp 
upon a subject until he had thoroughly mastered it 

On the 1st of July 1846, Cadet Jackson graduated with high 
distinction, and was brevetted second lieutenant and assigned 
to duty with the first regiment of artillery of the United States 
army. The war with Mexico had begun, and there the young 
and the brave of the country, and especially of the South, 
were hastening, burning with a noble desire to distinguish them- 
selves in the, cause of the country. 

The regiment to which Lieutenant Jackson was assigned 
was already in Mexico with the army under General Taylor. 
As soon as he received his orders to join his regiment in Mexico, 
he lost not a moment in proceeding there, where he arrived 
late in the year 1840. It was not his fortune to see any active 
service while under the command of General Taylor, as that 
portion of the regiment to which he was attached was not en- 
gaged in any important operations. But the time which was 
thus afforded him for studying his new profession and duties 
was not wasted in idleness. 

Early in the year 1847, troops were drawn from General 
Taylor's army and sent to the island of Lobos", where General 
Scott was organizing an expedition against the city of Vera 
Cruz. Lieutenant Jackson was ordered to that point with his 
battery. 

On the 9th of March 1847, the army of General Scott 
landed near Vera Cruz, and on the next day began the invest- 
ment of the city. This work was begun by General Worth, 
and was carried on successfully. Batteries commanding the 
city were erected and armed with siege and naval guns. At 
last all was ready, and at four o'clock on the afternoon of the 
22d of March, the bombardment began. 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 13 

Lieutenant Jackson was assigned the command of one of the 
batteries erected for the destruction of the devoted city. Ex- 
posed to great hardships, he exhibited the most unvarying cheer- 
fulness, and, the object of a heavy fire, he worked his guns 
with such skill and courage as to attract the attention of 'the 
commanding general and receive his highest commendation. 
For his " gallant and meritorious conduct" at the siege of Vera 
Cruz, he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. 

After the fall of Vera Cruz, the army advanced towards the 
city of Mexico. On the 18th of April the battle of Cerro 
Gordo was fought and won. In this action Captain John 
Bankhead Magruder, (who, like Lieutenant Jackson, had been 
assigned to duty witjh the heavy grtillery,) led the party that 
stormed the enemy's works at Cerro Gordo. The Mexicans 
were driven from their strong position. Captain Magruder 
was the first artillery officer to enter the works. He captured 
a Mexican field battery, which he turned and served with great 
effect upon their flying columns. GeneraLScott observing this, 
rede up to him and presented him with the guns, •which after- 
wards became so famous under the name of " Magruder' s light 
battery." 

Lieutenant Jackson was very anxious to be transferred from, 
the heavy artillery service to a field battery ; and as soon as 
he found that his friend, Captain Magruder, had been placed 
in command of one, he bent every energy to secure a transfer 
to that battery. In speaking of this, in after years, he re- 
marked to a friend: "I wanted to see active service. I wished 
to be near the enemy and in the fight, and when I heard John 
Magruder had got his battery, I bent all my energies to be 
with him, for I knew if there was any fighting to be done, Ma- 
gruder would be o'n hand." ,„ 

While Jackson was thus engaged, the army continued to 
push on, and in August came Avithin sight of the city of Mexico. 
From almost the same spot where, three hundred years before, 
Cortez and his followers looked down upon the distant halls 
of the Montezumas, the American army beheld the scenes 



14 LIBUTENANT-aENBRAL 

which were soon to be made famous by the gallant deeds w uc i 
they were to achieve there. 

The passes on the direct road to the city had been well ior- 

tified and garrisoned by the Mexicans, but the country upon 

the flanks had been left unprotected because their commanders 

deemed it utterly impossible for any troops to pass over it and 

turn their positions. El Penon, the most formidable of these 

positions, was reconnoitered by the engineers, who repotted 

that it would cost at least three thousand lives to carry it. Not 

wishing to make so great a sacrifice of his troops, General^ 

Scott resolved to turn the position instead of attacking it. 

Eeconnoisances of the city of Mexico atid its defences were 

ordered, and it was discovered that the works on the south and 

west were weaker than those at any other points. General 

Scott now moved to the left, passed El Perion on the south, 

and by the aid of a corps of skilful engineers, (foremost among 

whom stood Captain Robert E. Lee,) moved his army across 

ravines and chasms which the Mexican commanders had pro- 

nounced impassabh . and had loft ahnc -t entirely unguarded. 

Gene: al Twiggs ltd the advance, and halted and encamped at 

Chalco on the lake of the same name. "Worth followed, and 

passing Twiggs encamped at the town of San Augustin, eight 

miles from the capital. As soon as Santa Anna found that 

the Americans had turned El Penon and advanced towards the 

south side of the city, he left that fortress and 'took position 

in the strong fort of San Antonio, which lay directly in front 

of Worth's new position. Northwest of San Antonio, and 

four miles from the city, lay the little village of Churubusco, 

which had been strongly fortified by the Mexicans. A little 

to the west of San Augustin was the fortified camp of Con- 

treras with a garrison of about six thousand men. In the rear 

was a reserve force of twelve thousand men lying between the 

camp and the city. The whole number of Mexicans manning 

these defences was about thirty-five thousand, with about one 

hundred pieces of heavy and light artillery. 

General Persifer F. Smith was ordered to advance with his 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 15 

brigade, (die 1st of the 2d division of regulars,) and carry the 
entrenched camp at Contreras, while Shields and Pierce should 
move between the camp and Santa Anna at San Antonio, and 
prevent him from going to the assistance of the force at Con- 
treras. At 3 o'clock on the morning of the 20th of August 
1847, the expedition set out and at daylight made the attack 
on the entrenched camp, which was carried after several hours 
hard fighting ; those of the enemy who escaped retreating to 
Churubusco. After the capture of Contreras, the army ad- 
vanced upon the works at Churubusco, and after a stubborn 
fight succeeded in driving the enemy from them. 

In these battles Lieutenant Jackson behaved most gallantly, 
and was mentioned " for gallant services" in the official report 
of General Twiggs. For his conduct in these engagements he 
was brevetted captain, but this promotion did not reach him 
until some time afterwards. Lieutenant Jackson had obtained 
his transfer to the light artillery service ;.nd wa? ordered to 
report to Captain. Magruder Of his conduct. Captain Ma- 
gnifier in his official report, (which is, singularly enough, ad- 
dressed to Captain J. -Hooker,) speaks as follows: 

"I reported to General Twiggs and was ordered by him to 
advance towards the enemy's battery. * * * * About 
two o'clock P M., the battery was placed in front of the 
enemy's entrenchments at the distance of about nine hundred 
yams. * ■' ■■■ ivty nre was opened -,.#** ., nu 
continued with great rapidity for about an hour. * * * * 
In a few moments Lieutenant Jackson, commanding the second 
section of the battery, who had opened a fire upon the enemy's 
works from a position on the right, hearing our own fire still 
farther in front, advanced in handsome style, and being as- 
signed by me to the post so gallantly filled by Lieutenant John- 
stone,* kept up the fire with great briskness and effect. * * 
* * * * Lieutenant Jackson's conduct was equally con- 
spicuous throughout the whole day, jmd I cannot too highly 
commend him to Major General's favorable consideration." 

* This officer beA fal)?u a few minutes before. 



16 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

After the death of Lieutenant Johnstone, Jackson tecamp 
first lieutenant of the battery, and filled that post with^fill 
and distinction. 

On the 8th of September the battle of El MolinMd Bey 
was fought and won by the American army. Hay^bg deter- 
mined to carry the city of Mexico by storm, General Scott 
gave orders for the final assault. On the morning of the 18th 
September 1847, the attack was begun, and by night the strong 
castle of Chapultepec and the Beien and San Cosme gates of 
the city had been carried by the American troops. Early the 
next morning (the 14th) the city was- taken possession of. In 
the actions which led to the capture of the city, Lieutenant 
Jackson behaved with the most conspicuous gallantry, and as 
a reward for his services was brevetted major. 

In his official report of the battle of Chapultepec, General 
Scott speaks of him as follows : 

" To the north and at the base of the mound inaccessible on 
that side, the 11th infantry under Lieutenant-colonel Herbert, 
and the 14th under 'Colonel Trousdale,, and Captain Magru- 
der's field battery 1st artillery, one section advanced under 
Lieutenant Jackson — all of Pillow's division — had, at the same 
time, some spirited affairs against superior numbers, driving" 
the enemy from a battery in the road and capturing a gun. In 
these the officers and corps named gained merited praise. * 
* * * * * Having turned the forost on the west, and 
arriving opposite to the north centre of Chapultepec, Worth 
came up with the troops in the road under Colonel Trousdale, ' 
and aided by a flank movement of a part of Garland's brigade 
in taking the one gun breastwork, then under fire of Lieuten- 
ant Jackson's section of Magruder's battery." 

In the official report of General Worth, I find the following 
complimentary notice of the brave young artillerist : 

" After advancing some four hundred yards we came to a 
battery which had been assailed by a portion of Magruder's 
field guns-— particularly the section under the gallant Lieu- 



1H0MAS J.^ JACKSON, 17 



s 



tenant Jacksorf, who, althotfgh he hadltest itfbst of his h&sea 
and many of his men, continued chivalrously at his post com- 
batting with noble courage." 

In closing hi* report, Genera"! Worth tendered his a"q§now- 
ledscmeniB to'Xieutenant Jackson " for* gallant conduit" 



General Pillow says : 



"I had placed Colotael Trousdale with *<te 11th and"14tb, 
regiments, and ofee section of Magntffer's battery, urTOr com- 
mand of Lieutenant Jackson, on the road leading on the left 
of Chapultepee to the "City,' with instructions to advance on 
that road. * * * * Mafruder's field %'attery engage% a 
battery and a large force of the enemy in the roatl. immedi- 
ately on the west of Chapultepee\ The advanced .section of 
the battery, under the comnfadt'of the bfllve Lieutenant Jack- 
son, was dreadfully'cut up and almost disabled. * * * * 

* * . * #* Captain Magruder'^Rdd batterer, one* section of 
wliich was ser-^fcP with great gallantry by himself, and the 
other bjphis brave Heutenant, Jackson, in tflfr face of a galling 
fire from the ^letny'f entrenched positions, did invaluable ser- 
vice preparatory to the general assault." 

•■• Tt^Jt-account given in 1&e report of Captain Magruder is 
•more complete, and I give* it entire - , 'as nearly as possible. This 
report embrac.es descriptions of events which occurred on the 
8th, 11th,-- 12th, 13th and Mthlft September. It is as follows: 
" On the 8th instant at tlayligfe I was directed by Major 
General Pillow to move rapidly from the hacienda, near Mix- 
coac, -through Tacubay a, to support, if necessary, Major Gen- 
«ral>W^h's division, then fiercely engaged with the enemy 
wear Chapultepee. This order was complied with, and I ar- 
rived on the*field in time to witness the defeat of the enemy 

* - * £» and^.o-assis> in driving off a large body of cavalry 
#hioh threatened *^uf left fla*ikand rear; the latter was done 
by a .few well directed shots from the section under the imme- 
diate G^manil jsf "Lieutenant Jackson.-** * * * * On 

the^th the division occupiel^ie village of La Piedad, in' front 

S '* 



18 LIKUTENANT-GENERAJ-. 

of which a sectioft under command of Lieutenant Jackson was 
placed: another being on the Piedad road. Finding that 
Lieutenant Jackson's section was nearer the enemy's lines, and 
that no attack would probably take place on the Piedad road, 
I took my post, on the'lOth, with this advanced seation, re- 
taining with me Lieutenant Jackson. * ''" '" * " On 
the morning of the 13tb, I was directed by Major General Pil- 
low commanding, to place the latter section, under command 
of Lieutenant' Jackson, at the opposite angle— that is, on the 
left flank of Chapultepec. * * * As soon as our storming par- 
ties advanced sufficiently near the enemy to render my lire dan- 
gerous to our own troops, I received orders .to- join the other 
section of the battery at the left angle, and holding it in hand 
until the ltiain work was carried, to dash forward upon there- 
treating foe.. On reaching the spot where Lieutenant Jack- 
son's section ought to have - been, I found Lieutenant-colonel 
Herbert with but seventy men threatened seriously by the ap- 
proach of a large body of infantry and eavalry. I had de- 
termined to leave one, piece at this point and to unite the 
other with Lieutenant Jacksori''s section, when I received a 
message from him requesting a reinforcement of old troops. 
Gen. Worth being near, I communicated with him, and was' 
ordered to withdraw Lieutenant Jackson's section to the angle 
above mentioned. As I rode "ftp into this section I was 'dis- 
mounted by a grapeshot, but without material injury, and suc- 
ceeded in finding Lieutenant Jackson, whose section was, how- 
ever, so situated as to render it more unsafe to upturn than to 
remain where it was. * »* * * * Lieutenant&Fackson 
reports that he was ordered to that position by Colonel Trous- 
dale of the 14th infantry, under whose command he had.fallen; 
that on finding a battery of the enemy supported by* a large 
force of infantry within short range of hfrn 'across the road, he 
fired as soon as he could bring a*piece into battery and drove 
the enemy from the piece and work, after which theiinfantry 
entered it. When I arrived Lieutenant Jackson was eti» in 



THOMAS J. JACKSON". 19 

the advance, having caused a«piece to be lifted by hand over 
the ditch. I detached instantly a few mert^to disentangle'and 
bring up the disabled piece ; and passing th^-ditch, now nearly 
.tiled up by the infantry, soon over^pok fneutenant Jackson, 
who had fired several times upon the enemy's retreating col- 
umns before my* arrival. * * * * I beg leave to call 
the attention of the major-general commanding the division 
to the conduct of Lieutenant Jackson of the 1st artillery v Ifk 
devotion, industry, talent and gallantry are the highest quali- 
ties of a soldier, then he is entitled to the distinction which 
their possession confers. I have been ably seconded in all the 
operations of the battery by him'; and upon this occasion, 
when circumstances placed him in command for a sjjjbrt time 
of an independent section, he jproved himself emktently worthy^ 
of it." ' - * -o.i * 

Among the many traditions concerning Ljeutenant Jack- 
son's exploits . in the war with Mexico, which are pres§xve€ 
with the most scrupulous fidelity by the cadets of the Military 
Institute, is one relating to his conduct iqytbfir battle .of Cha- 
pultapec. I give it as it is told there. * .* 

Lieutenant Jackson had been placed, witb^iis^^teiion of the 
battery, in front of a formidable battery of the enemy*which 
was protected by-*a breastwork • His section had smFered ter- 
ribly from the enemy's ire, arid he had lost mapp men. ^Jany 
of those who remained".unhurt were'^eii'deavor'fng to shelter 
themselves from the terrible fire which the enemy was hiding 
upon theni. Lieutenant Jackson and a'serge^jaLBifenained by 
on&of the .jg^ns loading and, firing as coolly as if they had 
'only-'beefeat artillery -practice. While fn this situation, Cap- 
tain . Magruder arrived wifeh orders from General Worth to 
remo^piie sectijpi. This was found to be impracticable. The 
me*h were called to their guns again, assistance was sent for- 
ward by General Worth, and the "battery advanced nearer to 
the eiffmy's wort|l, not for an instant, slackening its fire. The 
e&emy aBfthdoneff-ttite tfork and fled, and the American troops 



20 LIEUTENANT-GENEKAL 

including Jackson's command, entered and took possession 

of it. \ 

In 1858 the graduating class at the Military Institute re- 
solved to ascertain* the truth of the story by questioning ^\J0r 
Jackson himself. Accordingly one of them related the ma- 
dent as he had heard it, and turning to Major Jackson, asked: 
"Is it true, Major?" 
$ Major Jackson smiled quietly and replied thai it was. 

'" That was a very hot place wasn't it, Major?" asked another 
of the class. 

"Yes, sir — very hot," was the answer. 
"Why dicl'nt you run, Major?" asked a third abruptly. 
A suppressed- laugh ran around tbo class. Mr; or Jackson 
smiled and replied : * 

* "I was not ordered to do so. If I had t?.en ordered to run 
I would have done so ; but I was directed to held ray position, 
and. I had no right to abandon it." 

The reply was eminently characteristic of the gallant sol- 
dier. Duty was srith him the first .thought; and in the per- 
formance of it no obstacle was too great to be overcome. 

The capture of the city of Mexico stru?k a death blow to 
the power of the enemy. Shortly afterwards peace was de- 
clared and the army returned -to the United States. 

Ittus for a,- while closed the military career of Major Jack- 
son. As short as thafeca^eer had been, it had been most bril- 
liant. He joined the army in Mexico late in 1846, an un- 
known brevet second lieutenant of artillery, with nothing '"to 

■** ■ 

depend upon for "promotion but his individual efforts, »and in 
the brief campaign $£rom Vera Crua to the city of Mexico, 
reached the high rank of Major — a series of promotions un- 
equalled by those of any other person connected with<Jle army 
of General ^cott. 

The severe service through which he had passed in Mexico, 
together with the climate of that country, h#d so impaired the 
health of Major Jackson, that shortly after the close of $e 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 21 

i 

war&e "was forced to resign "b^S commission in the army and 
retire to private life. A 

in 1851 he applied for and received the appointment of pro- 
fessor of natural and experimental philosophy and astronomy 
and the post of instructor of artillery at the Military Institute 
of Virginia, situated near the town of Lexington in the county 
of Rockbridge. He immediately entered upon the discharge 
of his duties and remained at the Institute, until the year 1861. 

While living in Lexington he made a profession of religion 
and connecte/1 himself with the Presbyterian church, having 
for his pastor that good old laanj the Sev. Dr. White. After 
connecting himself with the church, Major Jackson became an 
active and prominent member of it, and filled successively, and 
almost during the entire period of his residence in Lexington, 
important secular positions in it. His zeal and activity in the 
cause of religion were always among his most striking char- 
acteristics, ibut while he labored constantly, he labored quietly 
and modestly. 

Shortly after his removal to Lexington, he marred Miss 
Junkin, daughter of the R«* Dr. JTmkin, the president of 
Washington collage. The lady did %ot long survive her mar- 
riage* By this union Major Jackson had one child, a daughter, 
who died in infancy. Several years after the + death„of his first 
wi%/ ho. roa'ijriecl HFiss Mortison of <S[orth. parolina, who i&still 
living. By this second marriage he .had one-fchild, a jjjkughter, 
born a few months before his death. te 

.#Ihe life of Major Jackson., while^a fi-ofessor afc'the Institute, 
was: marked by very little' of importance. It was quiet, and 
peaceful, but always useful. For nearly ten years hecontinued 
patiently and humbly to implant in the minds and hearts of 
the youth of Virginia who were placed under his charge, those 
teachings which have since enabled the'nt to win frrr themselves 
immortal.fame, and to serve their country so well in her hour 
of need. The Military Institute of Virginia has furnished to 
the South a numbeixof most able and accomplished officers, 



22 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

and who shall say that the hand of God did not place Major 
Jackson in his humble position in order that he m'S 11 a t 
preparing the youth of his native state for the trials and ser- 
vices which were one day to be required of them. 

Major Jackson was not as popular among the cadets as were 
some of the other professors ; but none possessed in such an 
exalted degree their respect and deference. 1 Re was quiet and 
sometimes stern in his deportment. There were many little 
peculiarities in his manner which were by the cadets deemed 
wonderful. His quiet, blunt manner was considered by them a 
species of eccentricity ; and the peculiar manner in which he 
gave his commands when at drill with the battery, (that long, 
drawling manner so common to regular officers,) never failed 
to provoke a laugh. In the section room he would sit perfectly 
erect and motionless, listening with grave attention and exhib- 
iting the great powers of his wonderful memory, which was, I 
think, the most remarkable that ever came under my observa- 
tion. The course that he taught was the most difficult and 
complicated known to- mathematics, running through at least 
half a dozen text books. In listening to a recitation he very 
rarely used a book. He was ready at any moment to refer to 
any- page or line in any of the books and then to repeat with 
perfect accuracy the most difficult passages that could be re- 
ferred to. Sometimes he would startle his classes with ques- 
tions the most 'irrelevant to the subject of the recitation. and 
gjfeich very few were able to answer. The following incident 
may serve tojillustrate this : one morning in 1858 he called up 
a member of the graduating class and propounded the fallow- 
ing question : 

" Why is it impossible to -send a telegraphic dispatch from 
Lexington to Staunton?" 

The cadet seemed surprised at beinr asiced such a Question, 
but endeavored to account for the difficulty by stating that the 
iron in the mountains would draw the magnetic current from 
•the wires. « 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. ZO 

A smile passed over the Major's features, and he cut him 
short in his explanation with : 

"No, sir. You can take your seat." 

•Another was called up, and he was equally unable to shed 
any light upon the^mystery. Another shared the same fate, and 
another still, and all the while Major Jackson evinced in his 
quiet way the greatest amusement at the perplexity of the un- 
fortunate individuals.- At last the question hM gone nearly 
around the class. A young man, whose humor and audacity 
had made him famous among his comrades, was called up a»d 
asked to explain the matter. For awhile he, too, seemed com- 
pletely non-plussed ; but then his countenance suddenly bright- 
ening, he turned to the Major and exclaimed slyly : 

" Well, Major, I reckon it. must be because there is no tele- 
graph between the%wo places !" 

"You arc right, sir," said Major Jackson, now as gra^B as 
a judge.! " You can take your seat." 

A shout of laughter greeted this remark, and the Major 
looked on as calmly ^s if nothing had happened, and when 
order was restored "returned** to the subject of " the recitation 
with the most perfect coolness. *>• 

His even temper was sorely tried by the annoyance to which 
the cadets subjected. him. It was their greatest. ^delight to 
worry the professors — especially "old Jack," as he wa# fa- 
miliarly called. The drill battery was managed by drag rftpes, 
which were manned by the junior classes; the first and second 
classes acting as officers and cannoniers.*'' At drill the cad*s 
detailed to act as horses, would play all kinds of pranks «ipon 
him. Sometimes a lynch pin would be taken from the\xle of 
one of the gun carriages, and- the wheel would of course run 
w$, and the carriage, caisson or limber, as the case mig*h't be, 
break down. Again, some one would hang a small bell inside 
fig the limber box, and this would tin^fe'; merrily whenever the 
battery would move off, causing the cadets to break into shouts 
of I|Jpghter. Major Jackson would halt the battery an4 ex- 



24 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

amine every pice-, but could never discover where the bell was 
concealed, and, not finding it, would order the pieces to move 
forward; but no sooner would they move off, than the hell 
would begin again "its merry tinkle, causing renewed shouts of 
laughter Again, the officers would mimic the manner in 
which he gave his commands. One movement was an especial 
favorite with him — that of bringing the -battery into echelon; 
and whenever the command to form echelon, with its usual ac- 
companiment, "rigid oblique, trot, march!" was given* the 
whole parade ground would ring with the commands of the 
caclet omcei's, uttered in the most -ridiculously drawling man- 
ner. 'One evening when this had been carried to a great ex- 
cess, to, the infinite amusement of the corps, the adjutant ap- 
proached Major Jackson and asked him diow he was pleased 
with the drill. * 

"Very much, sir," replied the major. * Then he added, with 
a sly smile : " the officers gave very fine commands this after- 
noon." 

The artillery drijls were very uninteresting to the corps, 
unless cartridges were issued. Then I have never seen anv of 
the famous light batteries of either the/federal or confederate 
armies excel them in proficiency of drill or rapidity of move- 
ments. As soon as the sound of the guns would fall upon his 
ears, a chanae would- seem to come over Major Jackson. He 
WouFd grow more erect; the grasp i^pon his sabre would tighten; 
the quiet eyes would flash ; the large nostrils would dilate, and 
t&e calm, grave face*i^oxiId glow with the proud spirit of the 
warrior. I have been frequently struck with this, and have 
often called the attention of others to it. Perhaps he was 
thinking of the scenes through which he had passed in that 
far-off land, with whose . history his name- is so iroperishaWji 
connected. 

No .one for an ingtant doubted Major Jackson's skill ar^ 
talents, (indeed the proofs of them were too constant*and 
striling to leave room for doubt), but he sometimes madeJjjofSi-e 



THOMAS J. JA£K§bN. 25 

laughable mistakes, at.which none seemed more amused than 
himself. 

Upon one occasion he informed one of his classes that the 
clock in front of fflie Institute did not give the right time, and 
declared his intention to correct it. He accordingly led the 
class out upon the parade ground, and arranging his instru- 
ments, prepared to take his observations for the purpose of 
ascertaining the trug time. He finished his work about half- 



tami: 



past timve o'clock in the afternoonj and to his great astonish- 
ment discovered that it was nearly seven in the evening. 
The announcement of the result created a great deal of mer- 
riment, in which he joined. It was afterwards discovered that 
the instrument used was out of order,, and the observations 

were necessarily incojrect. 

* 

A cadet was on<j£ dismissed from the Institute in conse- 
quence of a charge^ being .brought and .sustained agajnst 
him by Major Jackson. Filled with rage he vowed revenge ; 
and arming himself, took his position on the road leading from 
the Institute into Lexington about the time that Major Jackson 
.usually passed by on his way to meet his classes; intending to 
shoot him wheneVei^he should appear. A friend heard of this, 
and meeting Major* Jackson on his way to the Institute, warned 
him of his danger and urged him*to turn back. >This he re- 
fused to do, saying — -"Let the assassin murder me, if he will!-" 
esteeming his duty more important than his life. When he 
reached the place where the young man %as waiting for him, 
he turned to him and gazed calmly at him. The young man 
turned away in silence, and Major Jackson continued his walk. 
It was always with him a matter of unplesantness to be com- 
pelled to bring charges against a cadet, and he would seek by 
every means in his power, consistent with his duty, to avoid, 
such a necessity. It was a fact well known among the cadets, 
that he made fewer reports than any other professor, and that 
his reports were the most difficult to have removed. Thfe rea- 
son of this is obvious. He was always accessible and ever 
4 



26 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

ready to render assistance to those who. needed it. He would 
take any amount of trouble to aid his pupils in mastering the 
difficulties which presented themselves to ihem. But no one 
could ever be familiar with him. His reserve, which ^many 
persons called coldness, prevented this. Yet no one could 
withhold the admiration and esteem which such a nature as his 
could not fail to command. A kinder, more generans and a 
nobler spirit was never placed within a human breast than that 
which glowed within the heart of Major Jackson. 

In 1859, when the "John Brown raid" occurred, Major 
Jackson was ordered to Charlestown with the cadet battery, 
where lie remained until after the execution. Those who wit- 
nessed that event will »ot fail to remember the attention that 
he attracted as ho rode out of, the town in command of the 
battery on the morning of the 2nd of December. While there 
he gave more than his usual attentioi>4o the training of the 
cadets. Every morning he exercised them at the guns, and 
in the school of the, battery,- over one of the most rugged sec- 
tions of country hi the state. 

In 1861, when the proclamation of Abraham Lincoln/orced 
the South to fly to arms in defence of hemughts, Major Jack- 
son was ordered by Governor Letcher to repair to Richmond 
and take command of the " Camp of instruction," located at 
the ''Fair grounds" near the city. On 'the 20th of April he 
left Lexington, and as soon as he reached Richmond, entered 
upon the discharge of his duties. He was commissioned a 
colonel in the state forces — this being the first colonel's com- 
mission issued by the state. As soon as he had taken charge 
of " Camp Lee," he bent every energy to accomplish the task 
of organizing and disciplining the large bodies of raw troops 
that were daily flocking in from all portions of the state. He 
did not remain long in this position, as his services were needed 
at another point. 

The confederate government seeing that Virginia was to be 
the theatre of war, began very early to pour its troops into 



THOMAS J. JACKSOX. 27 

that state. The most important points were occupied anil for- 
tified. Among these was the town of Harpers Ferry, which 
was built upon a pci-nt of land at the confluence of the Poto- 
mac and Shenandoah rivers. This being considered a point of 
great importance, a large force was collected there, and Colonel 
Jackson ordered to the command of the place. On the 2nd 
of May 1861, he took command at Harpers Ferry and began 
to piece the post in a state of defence. On the 23d of May 
he was relieved' of the command of the army and succeeded by 
General Joseph E.Johnston. Colonel Jackson was assigned to 
the command of the 1st brigade of the army of the Shenan- 
doah, (as the force under General Johnston was styled), and 
while at Harpers Ferry, rendered great assistance to his com-, 
manding general. 

Having collected a large number of troops, the federal gov- 
ernment prepared for the opening of the campaign in Northern 
Virginia. On the Potomac line they held the town of Alex- 
andria, from which they threatened General Beauregard's army 
at Manassas, and a strong column under Major General Pat- 
terson, was advancing through Maryland towards Harpers 
Ferry, As soon, as he was convinced that the enemy ^Vero 
about to enter Virginia, General Johnston evacuated Harpers 
Ferry, which he had held for the purpose of drawing them 
over the river, and moved towards Martinsburg, upon which 
point the enemy were advancing. He moved rapidly, but 
when he reached the neighborhood of Martinsburg, found that 
the enemy; having bean informed of his approach, had retired 
across the Potomac. General Johnston now marched to Win- 
chester. On the 20th of June he sent Colonel Jackson, with 
his brigade, to the neighborhood of Martinsburg to watch the 
enemv and check their advance. While there, Colonel Jack- 
son, in obedience to orders, entered the town of Martinsburg 
and destroyed such of the roiling stock and other property of 
the Baltimore and Ohio railnfad as he could not bring away. 
" A number of locomotives and cars were successfully carried 



28 LIEUTBNANT-GEK-BEAL 

to Winchester, but more than forty of the largest and finest 
engines, wkh others, old and disabled, and nearly three hun- 
dred box and platform and iron cars were destroyed." The 
road was torn up and the bridges destroyed for some distance ; 
thus inflictinr a serious loss upon the enemy. 

On Thursday, 2nd July 1861, the federal army under Gene- 
ral Patterson, crossed the Potomac a second time, at Williams- 
port, and moved towards Martmsburg. As soon as he was 
informed of this, Colonel Jackson broke up liis camp, which 
was located about two miles'north of the town, and advanced 
to meet the enemy. Having proceeded a short distance he 
halted his brigade, and detaching part 'of the 5th Virginia 
regiment, (Harper's) a small portion of Colonel Stuart's cav- 
alry, and one gun from Pendleton's battery, in all about 380 
men. he moved forward towards the Potomac to reconnoitre 
the enemy's position and ascertain his strength. Arriving 
near Falling Waters, he found the federal troops drawn, up in 
line of battle. This force consisted of Patterson's advanced 
brigade under Brigadier-general George Cadwalkder, and num- 
bered between three and five thousand men, with a fine battery 
of field artillery. The action was opened by a dash of two 
companies of Stuart's cavalry upon that portion of the enemy's 
forces which was the first to arrive upon the. field. As soon as 
he came up with the main body, Colonel Jackson, skilfully 
taking a position which enabled him to conceal the smallness 
of his force, at once engaged the enemy. The action began 
at 9 o'clock in the morning and continued with creat vi^or for 
an hour, when the firing grew more gradual, and continued so 
until the close of the engagement. About 12 o'clock, Colonel 
Jackson, finding that the enemy were making great efforts to 
outflank him, which the superiority of their force would en- 
ble them to do, drew off his men and retired to his main body ; 
the enemy making no attempt at a pursuit. Having rejoined 
his main column, he continued h?s retreat through Martinsburo- 
and halted at a little place called "Darkesville, about four miles 



THOMAS J. JACKSOX. 29 

south of the town, where he was joined by General Johnston, 
who had advanced to his support with the army of the Shen- 
andoah. 

In this affair, Colonel Jackson lost two killed and ten wounded. 
The enemy lost a large number killed and wounded, and forty- 
five taken prisoners. This has always been justly regarded as 
one of the most brilliant exploits of the war. With a mere 
handful of men, Colonel Jackson- had, for three hours, held in 
.check a force of ten times his own numbers, had repulsed every 
attack made upon him, had inflicted a severe loss upon the 
enemy, and had impressed them so deeply with a sense of his 
skill and strength, that they had allowed him to retire unmo- 
lested. It was a severe blow for an invading army, composed 
entirely of raw troops, to meet with such a decided check from 
so "small a force upon their first entrance into a hostile country. 
Surely it must have impressed them most deeply with the con- 
viction that the task of conquering the South would be any 
thing but child's play. 

General Patterson telegraphed to Washington that his army 
had "routed and put to flight ten thousand of the rebels." 
The defeat, however, was too plain to be smothered over by 
such a bare-faced lie, and a telegram soon afterwards appeared 
in a Louisville paper, which stated that the federals had ii evi- 
dently nothing encouraging to communicate." 

General Johnston waited four days for General Patterson, 
who bad ocQupied Martinsburg, to come out and give him 
battle ; but that officer decided doing so. The lesson taught 
him at Falling Waters was not without its effect. He was in 
no hurry to meet the men who had given him such a decided 
check as that which lie had experienced on the 2d of July. 
Finding that General Patterson would not come out and fight 
him, General Johnston fell back to Winchester. 

A few clays after the arrival of the army at 'Winchester, 
Colonel Jackson received the commission of brigadier-general 
in the provisional army of the Confederate States. This pro- 



30 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

motion was intended as a reward for his valuable services 

during the war, but especially Iris conduct at Falling Waters. 

The promotion was richly merited and gave great satisfaction 

to the army. „• 

. The 1st brigade of the army of the Shenandoah, commanded 
by General Jackson, consisted of the 2nd, 4th, ,5th, 27th and 
Soil Virginia regiments, and Pendleton's light battery. A finer 
body of troops never marched to battle. They were proud of 
their gallant commander, and it was list lorg before this feel- 
ing of pride was changed to one of almost idolatry. General 
Jackson was kind to and careful of his men, never neglecting 
anything that could in the least contribute to their comfort. 
He at all times preserved the most rigid discipline among them, 
and this was in a Great measure the cause of their wonderful 

O 

success. 

On the 18th of July, General Johnston began Lis celebra- 
ted inarch from Winchester to Manassas. Jackson's brigade 
led the advance, and, upon arriving at Piedmont en the Ma- 
nassas gap railroad, was embarked on the cais, ami, together 
with Bee's and Bartow's brigades, sent forward to Manassas. 

General' Jackson reached Manassas on the 20th cf July, and 
was ordered to station himself on the lines of Bail run, in the 
rear of Blackburn's and Mitchell's fords, in order that he 
mirdit be enabled to sironort either General Lomq;street at the 

o x x O 

former or General Bonham at the latter point, as the occasion 
might require. The enemy having determined to endeavor to 
turn the left flank of the confederate army, begun their attack 
at half-past five o'clock on the morning of the 21st of July, 
upon Colonel Evans position at the " Stone bridge." A few 
hours later, Colonel Svans heinc? satisfied as to the intentions 
of the enemy, moved- farther to the left, and changing his front, 
awaited their attack. They soon anneared, and the battle 
began at a quarter to ten o'clock. Evans' little band; though 
assailed by overwhelming numbers, held their ground firmly 
until the arrival of General Bee with reinforcements. The 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 31 

battle continued about an hour longer, when General Bee, in 
order to avoid being outflanked by the enemy, who were press- 
ing upon him from all points, fell back towards the Henry 
house. 

About seven o'clock in the morning, General Jackson was 
ordered to move with his brigade, together. with Imboden's and 
five pieces of Walton's batteries, and guard the intervals be- 
tween Bonham's left and Cocke's right, and to support either 
in case of need — the character and topographical features of 
'the country being shown to him by Captain Harris of the en- 
gineers. Shortly afterwards Imboden's guns were sent for- 
ward with General' 'Bee to the assistance of Colonel Evans. 
Soon after tins, General Jackson hurried forward to the sup- 
port of General Bee, who was sorely pressed by the dense 
masses of the enemy which were surging heavily upon him. 
He came into action and formed his brigade in line of battle, 
just as the torn and shattered fragments of Bee's forces, then 
in great danger of being routed, refched the plateauLon which 
the Henry house is situated. The enemy fifcding that the 
steady front which the gallant "first brigade" presented could 
not be broken, paused in their pursuit. .<^fder was restored 
along the lines, and soon Generals Beauregard and Johnston 
arrived upon the field. t While the army was being reorganized, 
and the new line of battle arranged, the artillery of the two 
armies became hotly engaged,. This brief rest given to the 
infantry, afforded the confederates an opportunity to reform 
their lines, and, beyond a doubt, saved the victory then trem- 
bling in the balance. All of this was due to the promptness 
of General Jackson in moving forward from the positron to 
which he had been assigned early in the morning, and bringing 
his brigade into position with such celerity and skill, thereby 
checking the pursuit. 

About two o'clock in the afternoon, General Beauregard or- 
dered the whole .of the right of his line (except the reserves) 
to advance and drive the enemy from the plateau. This was 



82 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

done with spirit. " At the same time Jackson's brigade pierced 
the enemy's centre with the determination of veterans and the 
spirit of men who fight for a sacred cause, but it suffered se- 
verely."* 

The enemy fell back ; but soon receiving strong reinforce- 
ments, pressed forward again and. recovered their lost ground. 
About three o'clock in the afternoon, General Beauregard, 
having received a small reinforcement, resolved to advance his 
lines and drive the enemy from the plateau, and accordingly 
orders were issued for the execution of this movement. 

The army had suffered terribly — particularly the brigade of 
General Bee. In that brigade every field officer, and nearly 
all of the company officers had fallen, and tlio heroic regiments 
which composed it were on the point of being overwhelmed. 
Just at this moment the order was given to charge the enemy's 
lines. 

Biding up to General Jackson, who sat on his horse calm 
and unmoved, though sewery -wounded in the hand, General 
Bee exclaimed'^ a voice of anguish : 
" General, they are beating us back !" 

General Jackson glanced around him for a moment. His 
large eyes flashed, and his features shone with a glorious light.' 
Turning to General Bee, he said calmly : 
" Sir, we'll give them the bayonet." 

Then placing himself at the head of his brigade, he thun- 
dered : 

"Forward!" 

The men sprang forward with a cheer, and swept like a 
whirlwind upon the startled foe. 

Hastening back to his men, General Bee cried enthusiasti- 
cally, as he pointed to Jackson, who was dashing on finely : 

"Look yonder !_ There is Jackson standing like a stone 
wall! Let us determine to die here, and we will 
Follow me !" 



* General Beauregard's reoort. 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 83 

Then placing himself at the head of his shattered column, 
lie led it forward, animated by the glorious example of Gene- 
ral Jackson and his men, in that noble charge, the success of 
which was purchased with his pure life. The charge of Jack- 
son's men was terrific. The enemy were swept before them 
like chaff before a whirlwind. Nothing could resist its impetu- 
osity. The men seemed to have caught the dauntless spirit 
and determined will of their heroic commander, and nothing 
could stay them in their onward course. The 27th Virginia 
regiment, in this brilliant charge, captured the greater portion 
of Ricketts' and Griffin's batteries, and the flag of the 1st 
Michigan regiment.* The name won that day by the brigade 
and its general, is immortal. Just as the final assault, which 
ended in their rout^was being made upon the enemy's lines, 
General Jackson was informed that Keyes' brigade of Tyler's 
division of the federal army was approaching for the purpose 
of outflanking the confederate forces. He at once ordered 
Alburtis' battery (supported by a small force of infantry) to a 
point overlooking the road by which the enemy were advan- 
cing.. A few shots from this battery and Latham's guns, which 
had taken position a little to the left, forced the federals to 
retire. <■. • 

In the final attack upon the enemy'? lines, the- brigade of 
General Jackson greatly distinguished itself, *nd 'drove" t^fie 
enemy from the field. The victory gainecW^.the^onfederate 
army was complete, and no one .'had contributecfthaare ftirgely 
to it than General Jackson. /,_, ** ■» -» * 

The wound in the hand, he, received in the efcrly part of the 
day. It was severe and painful ; 'but tie 'refused to \eate the 
field, and continued *!• command of .his brfgade until the close 
of the action. % » # 

The appeal of Ge*aer#l Bee toAis troops betame widely 
spread Ifcroughoi^ the army and the South. The troops, as a 
mark of their high esteem and admiration for him, bestowed 

i ' ' ' "■'■■' ' "• ' 

* Gen. Beauregard's report. 



34 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

upon him the flattering title of " Stonewall Jackson." This 
name, so eminently characteristic of him\ was readily adopted 
by all, and became so common that he was very rarely spoken 
of by any other. So universal did the habit become, that 
many persons devoutly believed he had no other name ; and 
this gave rise to many amusing blunders. It is srid that upon 
one occaston General Jackson received a letter addressed to 
"-Greneral Stone W Jackson." 

The valuable services of General Jackson were acknow- 
ledged by General Johnston in his report of the battle ; and 
it is there stated that the victory was due, in a great degree, 
to his skill and bravery. General Beauregard speaks of him 
as follows : " The conduct of General Jackson also requires 
mention as eminently that of an able, fearless soldier and sa- 
gacious commander — one fit to lead his efficient brigade ; his 
prompt, timely arrival before the plateau of the Henry house, 
and his judicious disposition of his troops, contributed much 
to the success of the day. Although painfully wounded in 
the hand, he remained on the field to the end of the battle, 
rendering valuable assistance." 

The brilliant services of General Jackson procured for him 
the commission of major-general. 

In the fall of 1861 the confederate army in Virginia was 
reorganized. The army of the Potomac, consisting of the 
forces .lying along, the Potomac,, south of Harpers Ferry, was 
organised" into several corps cFarmee — the troops in the neigh- 
borhood of Centrayillfe and Maiiassas- feeing under the -imme- 
diate contmand f f General Beauregard. The troops at Win- 
chester, thojse in the Valley of Virginia, and the commands of 
Generals Lbf-ing an'd Henry R. Jacksotffti Western Virginia, 
were organized into "a separate army, jsffi^h Avas styled the 
"Army of the MonongaheW The^ur^eme command of the 
armies of the Potomac and the Monongahe^ was c»ftferred 
upon General Joseph E. Johnston. 

Having received his commission as major-general, General 



THOMAS J. JACKSON.. 6b 

-% 

Jackson was ordered to proceed to Winchester and take com- 
mand of the army of the Monongahela. This he at once pre- 
pared to do. Before leaving the army of the Potomac, he 
took an affecting farewell of the troops with whom he had heen 
so long and so intimately connected. On the morning of the 
4th of October 1861, the gallant " Stonewall brigade" was 
drawn up near its encampment at Centreville. Ail of f the 
regiments (except the 5th, which was on picket,) were present. 
Drawn up in close columns, the officers and soldiers who had 
on the immortal 21st of July won such glory under the gui- 
dance of their gallant general, stood .with sad hearts and sor- 
rowful countenances to bid him farewell ; while thousands of 
troops from other portions of the army stood by in respectful 
silence. In -a short time General Jackson, accompanied b'y 
his staff, left his quarters and rode slowly towards the brigade. 
He was received by them in silence. Until this moment, the 
appearance of General Jackson hadjiever failed to draw from 
his men the mo'sir-enthusiastic cheers. But now not a sound 
was heard: a deep and painful silence reigned over everything: 
every heart was full ; and this silence .was more eloquent than 
cheers could have been. 

As they reached the centre of the line the staff halted, and 
the general rode forward slowly to within a few paces of his 
men. Then pausing, he gazed for a moment wistfully up and" 
down the line. Beneath the. calm, quiet exterior of the hero, 
there throbbed a warm and .generous heart, and this pajting 
filled it with inexpressible pain. After a silence of a few*mo- 
ments, General Jackson turned to his men and addressed them 
in the following brief, but expressive language : ^ 

"Officers and soldiers of the first brigade: I am not here to 
make a speech, but, simply to say farewell. IJirst met you at 
Harpers Ferry, in the„ commencement of this war, ajid I ean- 
not take leave of »you without giving expression to my admi- 
ration for your conduct from that day to this, whether on the 
march, the bivouac, the tented field, or the bloody plainte'of 



36 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

Manassas, where you gained the well deserved reputation of 
having decided the fate of the battle. Throughout the broad 
extent of country over which you have marched, by your re- 
spect for the rights and property of citizens, you have shown 
that you were soldiers, not only to defend, but' able and willing 
both to defend and protect. You have already gained a bril- 
liant and deservedly high reputation throughout the army and 
the whole confederacy, and I trust, in the future, by your own 
deeds on the field, and by the assistance of the same kind 
Providence who has heretofore favored our cause, you will gain 
more victories and add additional lustre to the reputation you 
now enjoy. You have already gained a proud position in the 
future history of this, our second war of independence. I 
shall look with great anxiety to your future movements, and I 
trust, whenever I shall hear of the first brigade on the field of 
battle, it will be of still nobler deeds achieved and a higher 
reputation won." 

Here he paused and glanced proudly around him. Then, 
raiding himself in his stirrups and throwing the bridle on his 
horse's neck, he exclaimed in a voice of such deep feeling, 
that it thrilled through every heart in the brigade : 

"In the army of the Shenandoah you were the first bri- 
gade ; in the army of the Potomac you were the first brigade ; 
in the second corps of this army you are the first brigade ; you 
are the first brigade in the affections -of your general, and I 
hope by your future deeds, and bearing, you will be handed 
dowPto posterity as the first brigade in this, our second war 
of independence. Farewell !" 

For a moment there was a pause, and then arose cheer after 
cheer, so wild and thrilling, that the very heavens rang with 
them. Unable to stand such affecting evidences of attach- 
ment, Greneral .fackson hastily waved farewell to his men, and 
gathering his reins, rode rapidly away. 

He at once repaired to Winchester to organize his army and 
Arrange the affairs of his department. In addition to the 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 37 

troops sent him from the army of the Potomac, (among which 
was his old brigade), the command of General Loring was or- 
dered from Western Virginia to join him. 

General Jackson was not popular at first with the troops of 
General Loring. They were devotedly attached to their com- 
mander, and were not willing that he should serve under Gen- 
eral Jackson ; and it was not until they had passed through 
the glorious campaign in the Valley, that they were perfectly 
satisfied with their new general. After that, their feelings 
seemed to undergo a complete change, and not even the troops 
of the old "Stonewall brigade," were more devotedly attached 
to him than were " Loring's men." 

While engaged in preparing his forces for active operations, 
General Jackson, on the 17th of December, destroyed Dam 
No. 5, on the Chesapeake and Ohio. canal ; thus disabling the 
canal and depriving the city of Washington of the supplies 
which were sent to it by that route. 

About the close of the year 1861, General Jackson's army 
numbered ten thousand men. The enemy had collected forces 
at the towns of Bath in Morgan county, and Rojciney in Hamp- 
shire county, from which points they committed numerous dep- 
redations upon the surrounding country. General Jackson 
resolved to drive them from these places and free the country 
from their presence. 

On the 1st of January 1362, he left Winchester with, his 
forces and took the road to Romney. Having proceeded a 
short distance, he wheeled to the right and marched towards 
Morgan county. The weather was very warm and the roads 
dusty on the first day ; the second day was very cold, and as 
the road was not in good order, the wagons were unable to 
keep up with the army, and the men were forced that night to 
lie out upon the ground without any covering or any thing to 
eat. On the morning of the third day, the wagons came up, 
and the troops were allowed a»short time to cook provisions 
and partake of food. As soon as this was done, thef set out 



3g LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

again, suffering very mucli from the intense cold. The mgnt 
A7I3 passed most uncomfortably, and on the next mornmg it 
be*an to snow rapidly. The troops suffered greatly from this; 
bar they pushed on cheerfully. That afternoon they came 
within four miles of Bath. Here the advanced brigade en- 
countered a federal force, and, after a sharp skirmish, forced it 
to retire into the town. The army encamped for the night 
just outside of Bath. Snow, rain and hail fell during the 
whole night, and the troops were forced to endure this without 
blankets or coverings of any kind ; but they were so much 
fatigued by their long marches of the past few days, that they 
sank down upon the wet ground and slept in spite of the hard- 
ships to which they were subjected. The roads had become 
almost impassable, owing to the sleet and ice, and it was with 
great difficulty that the horses could stand upon their feet. It 
was late on Saturday morning (January 5th) before the wagons 
came up and the men could procure food. As soon as the army 
had breakfasted, the order was given to advance towards Bath. 

The artillery, moving in advance, opened a heavy fire upon 
the yankees, and the infantry, hurrying forward to charge the 
breastworks which had been erected for the defence of the 
town, the enemy spiked their guns and retreated towards the 
Potomac. A portion of the militia which accompanied General 
Jackson's army, had been ordered to occupy a point in the rear 
of the town and thus cut off the enemy s retreat; but before 
they could reach it, the federals passed it, and retreated across 
the river to Hancock, in Maryland. They were pursued by 
the cavalry to the Potomac, where the confederates fell into 
an ambush and had to fall back. A piece of artillery was then 
ordered forward, and the woods in which the enemy lay con- 
cealed Yfere shelled until night. 

At night the army fell back a short distance. Two regi- 
ments of infantry and a battery were ordered to remain in 
the road all night to watch the enemy. They had no fires, 
and their sufferings were intense. Numbers, overcome 'by the 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 39 

cold, sank down in their places, and had to be carried to the 
rear. The soles of the shoes of the men, in many instances, 
froze to the ground. Yet, notwithstanding all that the^ en- 
dured, not a murmur of complaint was heard. 

On Sunday morning (January 6th) the army arrived oppo- 
site the town of Hancock, Maryland. Here the enemy had 
collected a strong force, and presented a hostile appearance. 
General .Jackson sent Colonel Ashby, with a flag of truce, to 
the authorities of the town, giving them two hours to remove 
the women and children from the place, and notifying them of 
his intention to cannonade it and drive the enemy from it. At 
the expiration of the appointed time, General Jackson opened 
his fire upon the enemy's batteries, to which they replied 
feebly. The fire continued rapidly for about an hour, and 
then ceased on both sides for the day. Not wishing to destroy 
the town, General Jackson directed his fire only at those por- 
tions occupied by the enemy. 

On the next morning the enemy, who had been reinforced 
during the night, opened a furious fire upon the confederates, 
who did not reply to them, but busied themselves with remo- 
ving the stores which the enemy had abandoned. 

While this was going on opposite Hancock, Colonel Rust, 
with two regiments and a battery, was ordered to proceed up 
the road and destroy the bridge over the Cacapon river. In 
his march to that point, he was ambuscaded, but succeeded in 
driving the enemy out of their place of concealment, and then 
burnt the bridge and destroyed a considerable portion of the 
road. 

On Thursday morning (January 8th) the army fell back 
from before Hancock. Having cleared this portion of the 
coifntry, General Jackson resolved to drive the enemy out of 
Romney, and immediately bftgan his march to that place. The 
enemy hjjgi at Romney a force of about six thousand men under 
Brigadier-general Kelley". Hearing that General Jackson was 
approaching, General Itelley evacuated the to\*n on the 11th 



40 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

of January, and retreated. General Jackson pressed on and 
took possession of the place. 

It jras the original intention of General Kelley, when he 
was informed of General Jackson's approach, to defend Rom- 
nay, and he issued orders to that effect. But his troops be- 
came seized with a violent panic as soon as they heard of the 
advance of the terrible ^Stonewall;" and General Kelley, 
finding it impossible to make them fight, was forced to retreat. 

The federals abandoned a large amount of stores of various 
kinds, and left behind them all the official papers of their ad- 
jutant-general. From these papers much valuable information 
was gained. General Jackson held Romney until the 6th of 
February, when he evacuated it and returned to Winchester. 

The terrible sufferings endured by the troops in this expedi- 
tion, caused many persons to regard the course' pursued by 
General Jackson ;:s unnecessary, and he was, for a time, the 
object of much censure. But the results of the expedition, 
and the .facts which time has revealed, prove incontestibly that 
it was rendered necessary by the circumstances in which he 
was placed. The Baltimore and Ohio railroad was the great 
connecting link between the East and the West ; and the 
United States authorities were using it to transport troops to 
the necessary points. The destruction of a portion of this 
road, including an important bridge, caused 'the enemy to 
adopt a more circuitous route through Pennsylvania, thereby 
putting them to serious inconvenience. Two large and im- 
portant counties were delivered for a time from the thraldom 
of the enemy and the demoralizing influence of their armies; 
rescued from their plundering and destructive acts of barba- 
rity and villainy, and confidence restored in the power and 
willingness of the government to give protection to its citizens. 
A severe loss was inflicted upon the enemy, a large amount of 
stores of various kinds captured, and the enemy gfleatly de- 
moralized, for the time, by the sudden and successful march 
of the confederate army. ' 



1H0MAS J. JACKSON. il 

It is true that the troops of General Jackson suffered terri- 
bly — that the hospital reports showed the fearful consequences 
of the exposure and hardships which had been undergone ; but 
this could not be avoided : and a calm consideration of the 
matter will not fail to convince any one that the expedition 
was a necessity, and bravely and skilfully carried out, reflect- 
ingjthe highest credit upon the gallant commander. 

Nothing can better illustrate the perfect confidence reposed 
in General Jackson by his troops, than the patient and cheerful 
manner with which they bore the most trying hardships to 
which they were exposed. Some of them were without shoes; 
many of them but poorly clad ; and nearly all without over- 
coats, blankets or tents : and yet they never murmured. They 
bore everything with the greatest cheerfulness. It was enough 
for them to know that " old Jack" thought the movement ne- 
cessary. It must not be supposed that General Jackson fared 
much better than his men. He experienced all of the hard- 
ships to which they were subjected. Fatigue, cold, exposure 
and hunger he shared with them. Wrapping himself up in 
his blanket, he would throw himself down upon the ground 
and sleep as soundly as if lying on a bed of clown. All that 
he could do to alleviate the sufferings of the men, he did most 
gladly. Such heroism as was exhibited by both officers and 
men in this fearful march, has never been surpassed in any age 
of the world. 

Having returned to Winchester, General Jackson allowed 
his army a brief period for rest. Sickness and the process of 
reorganization diminished its strength considerably. 

On the 26th of February, the federal army, some 20,000 
strong, under Major-general Banks, crossed the Potomac at 
Harpers Ferry, and on the same evening the enemy's cavalry 
occupied Charlestown in Jefferson county. This column was 
destined for the invasion of the Valley and the annihilation of 
the little army under General Jackson. General Jackson's 
force had been greatly reduced,- and now numbered scarcely 
6 



42 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

more than five thousand men. The army of the Potomac had 
fallen back from Centreville to the Rappahannock and Kapi- 
dan, and General Jackson had no assurance of receiving as- 
sistance from any point. The column under General Banks 
was already nearly four times as large as his own, while the 
forces of General Lander were within three days march of 
Banks and the federal army in Western Virginia could, when- 
ever it was found necessary, move into the Valley to the sup- 
port of the army there. The position of General Jackson was 
very trying, and for awhile it seemed that his gallant little 
army would be overwhelmned by the immense force that was 
moving against it. All over the country the hope was ex- 
pressed that the government would order General Jackson east 
of the mountains, and thus prevent his being sacrificed in (what 
was then thought) the vain attempt to defend the Valley. But 
General Jackson himself was not so despondent. Believing 
that the just God in whom he trusted did not always give "the 
battle to thejstrong alone; but to the vigilant, the active, the 
brave," he calmly awaited the enemy's advance. 

Pausing a few days at Charlestown, General Banks marched 
to Martinsburg, which place he occupied on the 3rd of March. 
Having completed his arrangements, he advanced upon Win- 
chester by the road leading from Martinsburg and also that 
from Charlestown. On the 11th of March these two columns 
were united at a point about six miles from Winchester. About 
two o'clock in the afternoon of the same day, the enemy ad- 
vanced and attacked the picket of Ashby's cavalry, four miles 
from the town. A small reinforcement was hurried to the as- 
sistance of the cavalry, but was forced to retire before the 
enemy. The whole confederate force was now thrown forward 
and held in readiness to engage the federals if they should 
continue to advance. This, however, General Banks declined 
doing, and nothing further occurred during the clay. Late in 
the clay, General Jackson received an order from the govern- 
ment requiring* him to evacuate Winchester, and retire up the 



THOMAS J". JACKSON. 43 

Valley.^ With great regret, he drew off his troops and retired 
into the town. He at once commenced to remove the stores, 
baggage and other public property. This was successfully ac- 
complished, and not one dollar's worth of the public property 
fell into the hands of the enemy. At last all was ready, and 
General Jackson, leaving Colonel. Ashby to cover his retreat 
with the cavalry, slowly retired from the town. He bivouaced 
that night about four miles from Winchester. 

At eight o'clock the next morning tiight thousand federal 
troops marched into Winchester and took possession of. the 
town. Colonel Ashby remained, sitting on his horse, in the 
Main street, until the head of the enemy's column came within 
a short distance of him, and then rode out of the town and 
rejoined his command. In the afternoon a federal column 
under General Shields advanced towards Newtown. They 
were met and driven back to Winchester by Colonel Ashby's 
command. During the same day, ^General Jackson continued 
his retreat until he reached Cedar creek, on the Valley turn- 
pike, sixteen miles from Winchester, and two from Strasburg. 
Shortly afterwards he continued to retire up the Valley until 
he reached Mount Jackson, a strong position in Shenandoah 
county. 

The' enemy remained in Winchester a short time longer, pre- 
paring for the campaign, which was about to open, and while 
there committed numerous and infamous outrages both in the 
town and the surrounding country. When he had completed 
his arrangements. General Banks left Winchester and advanced 
up the Valley in the direction of General Jackson's* army. The 
force of the enemy was vastly superior to that of the confede- 
rates, and it was necessary that this advance should be checked, 
and that as speedily as possible. Seeing the importance of 
this, and resolving to strike a sudden and powerful blow at the 
enemy and to cripple his movements, General Jackson left his 
position at Mount Jackson, which he had just reached, and 
moved rapidly towards, the enemy. 



44 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

i ii i fnrre in front 

Believing that Ashby's cavalry was the only loic 

of him, and that General Jackson would not dare to ngnt Mm 
so far from the support of the main body of the confederate 
army, General Banks turned over the command of Ins army 
to General Shields and started for Washington. General 
Shields advanced very leisurely up the Valley, and on Sunday 
morning, 23d of March, encountered General Jackson at 
Kernstown. 

The first day's march of General Jackson s army, was from 
Mount Jackson to Cedar creek — twenty-six miles. On the 
evening of the 22d of March, Colonel Ashby's cavalry came 
up with the federal pickets and began a skirmish with them, 
which continued during the evening. On the next morning, 23d 
of March, General Jackson moved forward, and by half-past ten 
o'clock arrived in front of the federal position at Kernstown. 
The enemy were advantageously posted on a rising ground, and 
their force numbered between eighteen and twenty thousand 
men, and a number of fine field batteries. The force that General 
Jackson carried into the fight consisted of about 3,500 men and 
four batteries of artillery, together with Ashby's cavalry. 

General Shields had been wounded in the arm, by a frag- 
ment of a shell, on the previous evening, but continued in 
command of the field during; the battle. General Banks ar- 
rived while the engagement was in progress. About twelve 
o'clock the Southern artillery moved forward and opened a 
heavy fire upon the enemy's batteries, which replied with 
spirit. This artillery duel was continued until four o'clock in 
the afternoon — the infantry of General Jackson's command all 
the while gradually moving to the left. About half-past four 
o'clock, General Shields threw forward a heavy column to- 
wards the confederate left flank. General Jackson had posted 
the 21st and 37th Virginia regiments on his left ; and these, 
waiting until the enemy came within short range, opened a 
rapid and destructive fire upon them, causing them to fall back 
•with speed. A second time they advanced and were driven 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 45 

headlong down the hill at the point of the bayonet. Having 
received large reinforcements, the enemy made a third attempt 
to carry the confederate left, but were again repulsed. Gene- 
ral Jackson now ordered the " Stonewall brigade," (reduced 
by reorganization and losses to almost a mere handful,) to the 
assistance of the regiments on his left, and these hardy vete- 
rans arriving on the ground just as the enemy made their fourth 
attack, drove them back in confusion. During the battle the 
enemy advanced to obtain possession of a stone wall in a cer- 
tain portion of the field, from which they would be enabled to. 
pour a destructive fire into the Southern ranks. Perceiving 
this, General Jackson at once ordered a regiment to secure the 
wall before the enemy could reach it. A most exciting race 
ensued. The confederates were the first to arrive at the wall,, 
and dropping on their knees and sheltering themselves behind 
it, poured volley after volley into the ranks of the enemy, and 
forced them to fly in disorder. The battle raged hotly until 
dark, General Jackson successfully' holding his position. At 
nightfall the firing on both sides ceased. 

Having accomplished all that he wished, and knowing the 
impossibility of defeating such a large force of the enemy, 
General Jackson decided to fall back to Cedar creek, where he 
could occupy a strong position, and successfully resist "the ad- 
vance of the enemy should they endeavor to continue their 
march up the Valley. The army was withdrawn during the 
night to a point in the neighborhood of the battle field. Two 
guns and four caissons were abandoned, on account of the lack 
of means to remove them. The confederate loss was about 
100 killed, 200 wounded and 300 prisoners. Most of the. 
wounded were carried off up the Valley. Those who could 
not be removed, together with the dead, were left upon the 
field. The enemy's loss was much heavier, and although not 
definitely known, has been estimated at 1,500. It was cer- 
tainly very great. During the battle, General Jackson ex- 
hibited great gallantry, and led one or two charges in person. 



46 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

The enemy, as usual, claimed to have won a great victory, 
and their papers were filled with accounts of the " terrible 
punishment inflicted upon the rebels." The facts, however, 
furnish ample proofs of the falsity of this assertion. General 
Jackson held his position until the close of the fight, withdrew 
iD perfect order, passed the night in the neighborhood of the 
field, and retired up the Valley unmolested. 

General Shields in his report, which is a most shameful per- 
version of the truth, claims to have won a great victory, but 
makes the following acknowledgment : 

" The enemy's sufferings have been terrible, and such as they 
have nowhere else endured since the beginning of this war ; 
and yet such were their gallantry and high state of discipline, 
that at mo time during the battle or pursuit did they give way 
to panic." 

On the morning of the 24th, General Jackson fell back 



*s 



slowly to Strasburg. The enemy made no attempt at pursuit, 
but contented themselves with watching him safely out of the 
neighborhood, and then themselves fell back to Winchester, 
and blocked the road between that place and Str-asburg. to pre- 
vent Gfeneral Jackson from advancing upon them again. 

The blow inflicted upon the invading army was most effectual. 
Its adrance was checked, and for several'weeks it was com- 
pelled to pause and reorganize before it could resume hostile 
operations. This delay was highly advantageous to General 
Jackson. From Strasburg he retired to Mount Jackson, and 
immediately set about reorganizing his army. Reinforcements 
were sent to him, and he was soon ready for service again. 

It was about this time that General Jackson first exhibited, 
in a remarkable degree, that wonderful rapidity of movement 
for which he afterwards became so celebrated. His army had 
just reached Mount Jackson after a weary march of forty-six 
miles, when he was informed that the enemy was advancing 
up the Valley. This was on the 22d of March. Determining 
to check their movements, he wheeled about, and by a forced 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 47 

• 

march of forty miles reached Kernstown the next day, struck 
a powerful -blow at Banks' army, and -within the next thirty-six 
hours was again at -Mount Jackson.* 

It was the design of the confederate authorities, after the 
army of General Johnston was moved to the Peninsula to meet 
McClellan, that General Jackson should remain in the Valley, 
hold Banks in check, and be ready, if necessity should require 
it, to move to the assistance of General Johnston. To this end 
he was slightly reinforced. General Jackson, however, had 
other and more extensive designs. 

After halving reorganized his forces and completed his ar- 
rangements, General Banks moved out of Winchester, and ad- 
vancing leisurely up the Valley, occupied the village of E'din- 
burg a few miles from Mount Jackson. Soon after this he 
advanced towards the confederate position. General Jackson 
was not yet ready to fight him, so he retired slowly before him 
as far as Harrisonburg in Rockingham' county. Here he 
wheeled abruptly to the left, and marching east, occupied 
Swift run gap, a pass in the Blue Ridge, on the eastern border 
of Rockingham county. This position was one of great 
strength, and could have been held successfully against any 
force which the enemy could bring against it. It enabled 
General Jackson either to advance upon the enemy and offer 
them battle, to interpose his forces between Banks and the 
town of Staunton or the Central railroad, to prevent their 
passing east of the' Blue Ridge unmolested, or to move his 
force to Richmond if necessary. 

General Banks advanced cautiously as far as Harrisonburg, 
and occupied the town. He threw forward a small portion of 

* The surprising rapidity with which he moved, soon became an univer- 
sal theme of conversation, and gave rise to many amusing incidents. Upon 
one occasion a wag remarked that " Stonewall Jackson was a better leader 
than Moses;" and upon being asked his reason for this assertion, replied 
" that it took Moses forty years to lead the Israelites through the wilderness, 
while Jackson would have ' double-quicked' them through 'it in three days." 



-i8 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

his forces towards Swift run gap, and constant skirmishing 
occurred between this body and the confederate outposts. 

The condition of affairs west of the mountains seemed grow- 
in"- more critical every moment. In front of General Jackson 
lay the army of General Banks, in numbers vastly superior to 
his own, while the advance of Fremont's army from Western 
Virginia was pressing heavily upon the small force under Briga- 
dier-General Edward Johnston, which was retiring in the direc- 
tion of Staunton. Fremont was evidently advancing for the 
purpose of entering the Valley and assisting General Banks. 
It was necessary to act promptly ; and General Jackson at 
once resolved upon a plan, the conception of which was only 
equalled by the brilliancy of its execution. He determined 
to leave General Ewell with his division to watch the enemy, 
while with the remainder of the army he would move towards 
Staunton, and at a suitable moment fall upon Fremont's ad- 
vanced column under General Milroy, drive it back, and then 
returning, would re-unite his forces with those of General 
Ewell, and drive Banks out of the Valley. 

Wishing ,to unite his command with that of General Fre- 
mont, General Banks, on the 4th of May, evacuated Harrison- 
burg and fell back to a point lower down the Valley ; thus 
giving General Jackson more freedom in the execution of his 
plan of operations. 

Passing rapidly through Staunton, General Jackson, on the 
evening of the 7th of May, united his forces with those, of 
General Edward Johnston, four miles west of Buffalo gap, and 
fourteen from Staunton. This movement was very rapid, but 
Milroy had heard of it, and was falling back before the com- 
bined forces of Jackson and Johnston. The next day, the 8th 
of May, the army was pushed forward and came up with Mil- 
roy's forces at the village of McDowell in Highland county. 
Here Milroy had halted, expecting to be reinforced that day 
by General Fremont. Unfortunately for him, he was disap 
pointed in that expectation. 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 49 

The enemy's force numbered 8,000 men. That of General 
Jackson was nearly equal to it. The federals occupied the 
town of McDowell, and with their artillery commanded the 
turnpike, (the only direct approach to the place,) which just 
before entering the village, runs through a narrow mountain 
gorge. Upon reconnoitering their position, General Jackson 
found that it would require a great sacrifice of his men to ad- 
vance upon the town by the turnpike, and at once resolved to 
occupy one of the hills in the neighborhood, from which, he 
could command the federal position. Accompanied by Gene- 
ral Johnston, he made a reconnoisance of Sutlington's hill, 
which he determined to occupy. General Milroy observing 
this, resolved- to prevent it. 

The forces of General Johnston were ordered to occupy the 
hill at once, and succeeded in doing so. They consisted of two 
brigades under Colonels Scott and Connor, and three batteries 
of artillery. The line was formed facing the town, Scott on 
the left and Connor on -the right. Wishing to dislodge them, 
General Milroy about 5 o'clock in the afternoon attacked Colo- 
nel Scott's position, making a desperate effort to turn his right 
flank." When the battle had fairly opened, Colonel Connor 
brought up his brigade to the assistance of Colonel Scolt, and 
formed his line at right angles to the position of that officer in 
order to prevent the enemy from outflanking him. Soon after 
the battle began, General Taliaferro's brigade of General 
Jackson's army, was brought into action to the relief of their 
friends. 

The battle ended at 9 o'clock at night, the enemy having 
been driven back at all points. The confederate loss was 
about three hundred killed, wounded and missiug. General 
Edward Johnston, the gallant commander of the Western army, 
and who had contributed so largely to the success of the battle, 
was severely wounded, and for awhile lost to the service. The 
army remained on the field during the night. 

Early the next morning it was discovered that the enemy 
7 



,50 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

had abandoned the town and fled towards Pendleton county. 
General JV.ekson pushed on after them, and pursued them as 
far as Franklin. Here the enemy, reinforced by the troops of 
General Fremont, halted and began to fortify their position. 
The pursuit here ended. 

The results of this expedition were in every way satisfac- 
tory. Fremont's advanced corps had been defeated, and his 
march checked. He had suffered a loss of some 1.200 men, 
100 boxes of ammunition, 500 Enfield rifles and Minie mus- 
kets, 60 to 75 cavalry saddles, and a large quantity- of stores. 
The country was painfully excited with regard to the threat- 
ening aspect of affairs west of the mountains', and anxious eyes 
were turned towards the gallant army in the Valley, striving 
in vain to pierce the gloom that seemed to overshadow them. 
The first gleam of light that came over the distant hills, was 
the news of the victory at McDowell, which was announced by 
General Jackson in. the following graceful and characteristic 

despatch : 

Valley District, May 9, '61. > 

Vict Staunton, May 10. J 

To General S. Cooper: God blessed our arms with victory at McDowell 

yesterday. 

T. J. Jackson, Major General. 

Leaving a small force to watch the enemy, General Jackson 
retraced his steps to the Shenandoah mountain, and passing 
over it, marched rapidly to Harrisonburg, where he reunited 
his forces, (including General Edward Johnston's column 
which he had brought with him), with those of General Ewell. 
The first part of the plan had been carried .out with success, 
and General Jackson now resolved to turn his attention,, to 
General Banks, whose position in the Valley invited an attack. 

That officer had committed the great errer of dividing his 
forces, and thus enabling General Jackson to attack them in 
detail. While Jackson was busy with Milroy, Shields had 
passed through the Blue Ridge and effected a junction with 
General McDowell at Fredericksburg. This weakened Banks' 



THOMAS J. JACICSOX. 51 

column by 8,000 men and several batteries of artillery ; but 
still the remainder of his force was much larger than General 
Jackson's entire army A force of several regiments was 
stationed -at Front Eoyal, eighteen miles from Winchester, 
while the main column, numbering from twelve to fourteen 
thousand men, was between Strasbarg and Winchester. 

Perceiving the error committed by General Banks and re- 
solving to profit by it, General Jackson moved forward to at- 
tack him at once. General Ewell 'was ordered to fall upon the 
force at Front Royal, while General Jackson, with the rest of 
the army, would interpose between Strasburg and that point, 
thus cutting off all communication between the two columns of 
the federal army, and rendering them powerless to assist each 
other. After the capture of the force at Front Eoyal, the 
combined army would fall upon Banks and drive him out of 
the Valley. 

On the 23d of May, General Ewelrs division reached Front 
Royal. The jmetoy had here a force of several regiments, 
which (^upied a strong position. General Ewell made a 
vigorous* ttack upon them andi^oon drove them from their 
position, capturing the 1st Maryland^ (U. S.) regiment of in- 
fantry and the 2nd Vermont cavalry — in all about l,50(Lmen — 
and a section of artillery. 

While this was going on, General Banks was at Strasburg. 
As soon as he heard of the capture of Front Royal, he broke 
up his camp and retreated rapidly to Winchester. The forces 
of Generals Jackson and Ewell having formed a junctiomwith 
each o£her, the army was hurried forward in pursuit of Banks, 
and on the morning ofLthe 24th, came up with him at Middle- 
town between Strasburg and Winchester. Hurling his forces 
upon the Scleral 'column, General Jackson pierced its centre, 
and forcing the wings apart, drove them in confusion from the 
field; one wing a-etreating towards Strasburg and the other 
towards Winchester. Detaching General Taylor's brigade to 
pursue that .p'ortfrm of the enemy which had fled towards StraS- 



52 . LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

1 

burg, General Jackson hurried on in pursuit of the other. 
General Taylor soon came up with the enemy, and by a vigo- 
rous attack upon them, completed their utter demoralization, 
routed them and took many prisoners. 

Sending the cavalry ahead of the army to pursue the enemy, 
General Jackson hurried on as fast as possible with the infantry 
and artillery. General Banks was with the Aving of his army 
that had fl^d towards Winchester. Ail along the road the 
enemy threw away their arms, ammunition, clothing, and every 
thing that could encumber them in their flight. Wagons were 
upset in the road and abandoned or burnt. Prisoners were 
taken by the confederates at every hundred yards, and the 
greatest terror and confusion marked the enemy's flight. At 
last the neighborhood of Winchester was reached, and here 
the pursuit ended for the night. 

Early on the morning of the 25th, General Jackson ad- 
vanced upon the enemy, who, having rallied during the night, 
endeavored to make a stand a short distance outside of Win- 
chester. The engagement was brief, but decisive. The enemy 
were routed and driven through the streets of Winchester, 
which place they endeavored to burn in their flight. The 
flames were extinguished by the confederates, and the pursuit 
of the enemy continued. Retreating through Martinsburg, 
General Banks crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, and re- 
tired into Maryland. General Jackson pursued him to the 
Potomac, where he halted. Sending a portion of his army to 
Martinsburg to capture the stores there and destroy the Balti- 
more and Ohio railroad, he moved with the remainder of the 
army to Bolivar heights near Harpers Ferry, which he occu- 
pied on the 28th of May, driving the* enemy's forces there 
across the Potomac. The plan of General Jackson had been 
entirely successful. Banks' army had been driven out of Vir- 
ginia with a severe loss in killed and wounded and about 8,000 
prisoners. In addition to this, General Jackson captured ten 
.thousand stand of arms., twelve pieces of artillery, six hundred 



TH0MA6 J. JACKSON. 06 

•sacks of salt, four hundred wagons, a large number of horses, 
one hundred thousand dollars' worth of medicines, hospital 
stores, surgical instruments and luxuries for the sick, and com- 
missary and quartermaster stores in abundance. A part of 
the stores had to be destroyed, but the greater portion General 
Jackson brought off in safety. , 

He announced his success to the government as follows : 

Winchester, May 26th. 
To General S. Cooper: During the last three days God has blessed our 
arms with brilliant success. On Friday the federals at Front Royal were 
routed and one section of artillery in addition' to many prisoners, cap- 
tured. On Saturday, Banks' main column, whilst retreating from Stras- 
burg to Winchester, was pierced ; the rear part retreating towards Stras- 
burg. On Sunday the other part was routed at this place. At last accounts 
Brigadier-general George H. Stuart was pressing them with cavalry and 
artillery, and capturing many. A large amount of ordnance, medical and 
other stores have fallen into our hands. ' 

{ T. J. Jackson, Major-general. 

The defeat of General Banks' army and its flight into Mary- 

*■■■ ^ 

land, together with the approach of General Jackson to the 
Potomac,' threw the .government and people of the United 
States into a fever of excitement. The wildest rumors pre- 
vailed every where that General Jackson was advancing upon 
Washington and that the city was in great danger. The fede- 
ral secretary of war telegraphed to the governor of Massa- 
chusetts : " Send all the troops forward that you can immedi- 
ately. Banks completely routed. * * * * Intelligence 
from various quarters leaves no doubt that the enemy in great 
force are advancing upon Washington. You will please or- 
ganize and forward immediately all the volunteer and militia 
force in your state." 

A feeling of perfect terror prevailed every' where. Men 
wore longhand anxious faces; and the questions, "Where is 
Jackson?" "Has he taken Washington?" were upon every 
tongue. 

The force at Fredericksburg was intended to be marched 



54 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 



oven a 



nd. (after the arrival of the reinforcements tinder Gen- 
eral Shields), to join McClellan, who was then before Rich- 
mond. If this had been done, it would have caused a great 
inconvenience, if not real misfortune to the confederate army 
at that place. But, no sooner had the news of Jackson's ad- 
vance towards tin} Potomac reached Washington, than General 
McDowell was withdrawn from the Rappahannock and brought 
nearer to Washington for' the defence of the city. Fremont 
was ordered to move his forces from Western Virginia across 
the mountains and unite them with a column under General 
Shields, which was to move up from MeBwell's army, pass 
through the Blue Ridge and meet him in the Valley. This 
would throw a strong force in Jackson's rear, and while he was 
endeavoring to elude or defeat it, a third column would move 
forward from the Potomac and hem him in. 

General Jackson s army had, within the brief period of 
twenty-two days, inarched from Staunton to McDowell, where 
i battle had been fought, thence to Franklin, thence over the 
Shenandoah mountains to Harrisonburg, and thence down the 
Valley, to the Potomac, engaging the enemy nearly all the way 
between the last two points — in all a distance of nearly two 
hundred and fifty miles, and was greatly in need of rest. In 
iddition to this, it was burdened with an enormous train, con- 
tainim: the snails captured from the enemy. 

Oil */ 

It was in this condition that General 'Jackson heard that 
Fremont and Shields were advancing rapidly to cut off his 
retreat up the Valley. It was necessary to move with the 
greatest speed in order to prevent the enemy from intercepting 
him. His position was never, during his continuance in the 
Valley, as critical as at the present moment, and he was never 
more cheerful and undaunted than now when the clouds seemed 
gathering so darkly around him. If he could reach Strasburg 
before General -Fremont, who was hastening towards that point, 
he would be able to send his train and prisoners up the Valley 
in safety, and to turn upon Fremont if he desired to do so. 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. , 55 

Wheeling his army about, General Jackson left the Poto- 
mac late in the day on the 30th of May. His line (including 
his wagons and prisoners) was twelve miles long. 'The fatigue 
which the men had undergone in the pursuit of Banks had 
greatly exhausted them, but no sooner did they know that 
" Old Jack" thought it necessary to retreat with speed, than 
fatigue was forgotten, and they pushed on cheerfully. Du- 
ring the march, General Jackson was informed that Fremont 
was pressing hotly upon him, and accordingly increased his 
speed. 

The march of t,he two armiesftto Strasburg, was literally a 
race between them. At last Strasburg was reached on the 1st 
of June ; the army having marched since late on tho 30th of 
May, (a day and a half,) a distance of fifty miles, burdened 
with an immense train of fifteen hundred wagons, a large park 
of artillery and over three thousand prisoners. This .wonderful 
march, together with their other movements, gained for the 
troops the title of " Jackson's foot, cavalry." 

When General Jackson entered Strasburg, the advanced 
brigade of Fremont's army was almost within sight of the 
town. Determining to check his progress, General Jackson 
halted the main body of his army, and moving forward with a 
small portion, came up with Fremont's column, and engaging 
his advanced guard, compelled it to retire and halt for the 
night. During the night the army left Strasburg and con- 
tinued the retreat up the Valley. The next day Fremont en- 
tered the 'townj and finding that the Southern army had given 
him the slip, pushed on in pursuit of them. This was Mon- 
day, the 2nd of June. 

A new danger now threatened General Jackson. While 
Fremont" was pressing on with speed in his rear, he was in- 
formed tbllt the column of General Shields, which had- moved 
up from Fredericksburg, had passed ,the Blue Ridge, and was 
at Luray in Page 'county, thus occupying a position which 
would enable it to fall upon General Jackson's left flank and 



£g LIEUTEKANT-GENEKAL 

cause him serious inconvenience. To avoid this column, it was 
necessary to mnreh with greater speed and get in front of it, 
an J this" General Jackson resolved to do. Day and night he 
pressed on, rarely halting for food or rest. 

Daring the retreat, the rear of the army was protected by 
the cavalry, and a small force of infantry, under the chivalric 
Ashby— now a brigadier-general. Daily skirmishing occurred 
between this force and the enemy— the latter always being 
repulsed. 

On the evening of the 7th of June, the army reached Har- 
risonburg Fremont now made a bold dash at Jackson's rear, 
and a heavy skirmish occurred between his forces and the com- 
mand of General Ashby. The enemy were greatly superior 
in numbers, but were driven back with a heavy loss. In this 
action General Ashby was killed.* 

Passing through Harrisonburg, General Jackson abandoned 
the turnpike, and wheeling to the left, marched to Port Re- 
public, a little village twelve miles distant, where he resolved 
to halt and give the enemy battle. 

The town of Port Republic is situated at the confluence of 
the North and South rivers, which form the Shenandoah ; the 
former stream flowing east and the latter north. On the east 
side of the Shenandoah, near Port Republic, was the army of 
General Shields, numbering about twelve thousand men, and 
on the west side were the armies of Generals Fremont, (about 
twenty thousand strong), and Jackson. The Shenandoah and 
both of its tributaries, were greatly swollen, and could not be 
crossed at any point but at Port Republic. The position of 
General Jackson's forces was desperate, but he resolved to take 
advantage of the division of the federal army and attack its 
columns separately before they could unite against him. Gene- 
ral Fre'mont had superseded General Ranks, and was confident 

* No braver, truer specimen of the Southern gemlenwn th;in Turner Ashby 
ever lived. He was as modest as a girl, as brave as a lion, and an. humble 
and sincere christian. He was a great loss to the South. 



THOMAS J. JACKSOK. 



#? 



of defeating General Jackson. His military career had been 
throughout the war so very unsuccessful, that his only hope of 
preserving the favor of his government, lay in defeating Jack- 
son. The confederate army reached the west bank of the 
Shenandoah, opposite Port Republic, late on the night of the 
7th of June. The army halted there, and General Jackson, 
his staff and several officers crossed over to Port Republic, 
where they spent the night. 

Early in the morning, on the 8th of June, the cavalry ind 
a section of artillery from General Shields' army entered the 
town. Hastily mounting his horse, General Jackson, accom- 
panied by his staff, rode towards the bridge by which he had 
crossed the river the night before. Upon reaching it he found 
that the enemy had taken possession of it, and planted a piece 
of artillery to sweep it in order to prevent his troops from cross- 
ing upon it. Nothing daunted by this unpleasant discovery, 
General Jackson r<3de up boldly to the officer in command of 
the gun, and asked sternly.: 

" Who told you to place this gun here, sir ? Remove it and 
plant it on yonder hill !" 

i As he spoke, he pointed to an eminence'some distance off. 
The officer bowed, limbered up his piece, and prepared to move 
away. When he had started, the Southern officers wheeled 
their horses, and putting spurs to them, dashed off rapidly 
across the bridge. The federal officer now saw the trick, and 
hastily unlimbering his gun, sent a shower of grape and canis- 
ter after the general and his staff, which whistled harmlessly 
over their head.;. Upon reaching his army, General Jackson 
sent a small force to the bridge and drove the enemy from it. 

He had scarcely reached his army when he was informed 
that General Fremont was advancing from Harrisonburg, and 
at the same time the troops of General Shields were seen on 
the opposite side of the river.. 

Determining to prevent a junction of these forces, General 
Jackson disposed a part of his artillery along the bank of the 
6 



,3§ LIEUTEIvANT-GENEilAL 

river, and detaching ,a portion of the infantry, remained with 
them to dispute and prevent the passage of the stream by 
General Shields. General Ewell was ordered to move with 
the rest of the army in the direction of Harrisonburg, to fall 
upon the column of General Fremont and drive it back. 

During the day a brisk cannonade was commenced and con- 
tinued across the river, and the enemy held in check. Gene- 
ral Shields, thinking that General Jackson would either move 
iiis" army, or be forced across the Shenandoah by General 
Fremont, made no attempt to cross it; but remained uatientlv 
awaiting General Jackeon's appearance. * 

General Ewell set out at once, and upon reaching Cross 
Keys, a strong position about five miles from the river, drew 
up his forces in line of battle and prepared to engage the enemy, 
who, were directly in his front. His line was formed upon a 
rising ground, which to some extent protected his infantry, 
and enabled his artillery to pour a destructive fire into the 
enemy's ranks. 

The battle began early in the morning between the artillery 
of the two armies. During the entire day it raged furiously, 
save at rare and brief intervals.. Relying upon his great si%- 
periority in numbers, Fremont again and again hurled his 
heavy columns upon the little band of veterans under the 
lion-hearted Ewell, and again and again were they swept back 
with irresistible force, The eagle eye of the gallant general 
closely watched the movements of the enemy, and quickly de- 
tected and profited by the numerous blunders of the federal 
commander. Gradually advancing his lines, General Ewell 
swept the enemy before him, and when night closed the strug- 
gle, Fremont had been driven back two miles. 

The loss sustained by the federal army in this engagement 
was between eighteen hundred and two thousand : that of the 
confederates was not over two hundred. 

During the night, General Jackson withdrew General E well's 
troops and reunited them with the rest of the army. He left 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. ~S.) 

a small force in Fremont's front, with orders to fall back slowly 
before him, and after crossing the river at Port Republic, to 
burn the bridge and thus prevent him from crossing and ren- 
dering any assistance to the federal column on the opposite 
side. 

Having reunited his forces, General Jackson resolved to fall 
upon General Shields and defeat him". Early on the morning 
of the 9th of June he crossed his forces at Port Republic, and 
advanced upon the enemy. 

General Shields had formed his line of battle about a mile 
outside of Port Republic. His right rested upon the r^per, 
and his line extended for about half a mile over an open wheat 
field. His left rested upon the point of a low ridge whicfe 
Mgrted the field at that side, and was partially protected by a 
copse of woods. Upon this ridge, and upon some slight emi- 
nences in the river bottom, he had posted his artillery, wliich 
commanded the road and the open plain over which the South- 
ern troops had to advance to attack him. The federal position 
was admirably chosen, and the country in which General Jack- 
son had to operate was by no means favorable to him. 

As soon as the troops crossed the river, General Jackson led 
them against the enemy. The plain across which they advanced 
was swept by a murderous fire of artillery and infantry, but 
moving on steadily they gradually drew nearer to the enemy's 
lines, and engaged them hotly at alls points. The battle con- 
tinued to rage furiously for two hours. At the expiration of 
that time, the enemy threw forward a section of artillery for 
the purpose of enfilading the left wing of the Southern line, 
which had already suffered fery severely from the fire in front. 
It was a critical period of the day ; but fortunately at this 
moment a movement in ancrller direction startled the enemy 
and decided the fate of the battle. 

Soon after the action began, General Jackson discovered 
that the battery, which had been posted near the woods on the 
federal left, was without any infantry si|ppnrt. He at once 



60 LIETJTEKANT-GEXKRAL 

ordered General Taylor to make a circuit to the right with his 
brigade, to advance rapidly through the woods, and fall upon 
the battery and capture it. Taylor moved with speed, and 
emerging from the woods at the moment that the federal ar- 
tillery was advanced upon their right, dashed upon the battery, 
and driving the cannoneers from it, secured the guns. Then 
turninp- them upon the startled foe, he poured a destructive fire 
into their ranks. At the same moment, other troops having 
come up from Port Republic, the whole line swept forward upon 
the enemy and drove them from the field. Until the loss of 
their battery, the enemy, who were Western men, fought with 
unusual gallantry ; but as soon as the retreat began, they broke 
and fled in the wildest confusion — they were completely routed. 
They were pursued by the cavalry for fifteen miles in the dir<^|- : 
tion of Luray. 

During the night after his defeat, General Fremont had sue- 
oeeded in restoring order among his troops, and the next morn- 
ing, as soon as the sound of cannon in his front told him thut 
Jackson had fallen upon Shields, advanced to that officer's as- 
sistance. The small confederate force that had been left to 
watch him, fell back slowly before him, skirmishing all the way. 
Passing over the river, (the trains and the prisoners having 
been sent on towards Staunton by General Jackson), they de- 
stroyed the bridge, thus completely cutting oft" all means of 
communication between the two hostile armies. Just as the 
retreat of Shield's army began, Fremont's forces appeared on 
the west bank of the Shenandoah, and, being utterly powerless 
to render any assistance to his friends, the federal commander 
was forced to remain an idle spectator of the confederate 
victory. 

In the battle of Port RepubM, the enemy lost about 1,000 
killed and wounded, and 500 prisoners, and six pieces of ar- 
tillery. The confederate loss was about 500 killed and wounded. 
General Jackson telegraphed the news of his victory to Rich- 
mond in the following despatch : 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 61 

Near Port Republic, June 9th. \ 

Via Staunton, June 10th, 1862. f 
To S. Cooper, Adjutant-general: Through God's blessing, the enemy, near 
Port Republic, was this day routed with the loss of six pieces of his ar- 
tillery. 

(Signed) T. J. Jackson, 

Major-%eneral commanding. 

'This rno5t 'astonishing campaign in the Valley won for Gene- 
ral Jackson and his mllant army a high reputation. His name 
became a terror to tha enemy, and was mentioned with respect 
in every land where valor and skill are honored. He was, 
with one consent, ranked among the greatest generals of the 
world, and comparisons were instituted between himself and 
the great Napoleon, in which General Jackson did not suffer 
in the least. Indeed, if we compare the campaign in the Val- 
ley with the first campaign of the army of Italy, and remem- 
ber that the army of General Jackson was composed entirely 
■of volunteer troops who had not until a year before seen any 
service at all, and that the mass of the French army was com- 
posed of "regulars," inured to the hardships and fatigues of 
war, we shall find that the comparison is not unjust. 

The army fell back fi>om Winchester on the 11th of March, 
and retired as far as Mount Jackson, f and then, rapidly re- 
tracing its steps, fought the battle of Kerns town on the 28d. 
Retiring, again to Mount Jackson, it rested for a brief period 
until, upon the enemy's advance up the Valley, it retired to 
Swift run gap. On *the 7th of May it swept over the moun- 
tains, fell upon Fremont's advance and swept"it back in confu- 
fusion. Then bearing eastward, it returned to the Valley, and 
falling suddenly upon General Banks, routed his army and 
drove it out of Virginia, capturing an immense amount of 
spoils and over three thousand prisoners. Then by a retro- 
grade movement, the celerity of which seems almost super- 
human, it returned to the upper Shenandoah, baffling the 
«fforts of the federal commanders, and defeating with heavy 



LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 



the 



very forces that had been sent to capture it. In 
thirty-two days it had marched nearly four hundred miles, 
skirmishing almost daily, fought live battles, defeated three 
armies two of which were completely routed, captured about 
twenty pieces of artillery, some four thousand prisoners, and 
immense quantities of stores of all kinds, and had done all 
this with a loss of less than one thousand men killed, wounded 
and missing. Surely a more brilliant record cannot be found 
in the history of the world; and Gencr:^ Jackson might well 
say that this was accomplished "through God's blessing." 

After his defeat, General Shields retreated rapidly down the 
Valley, and Fremont hastened to Harrisonburg where he halted 
his army. General Jackson retired leisurely to Brown's gap, 
a pass in the Blue Bidge, carrying off in safety all of the 
prisoners and spoils captured from the enemy. 

On the 12th of June, General Fremont evacuated Harri- 
sonburg and retired slowly down the Valley, halting at Mount 
Jackson in Shenandoah county - 

In view of other operations, General Jackson was strongly 
reinforced after his encounters with Fremont and Shields. 
Troops were drawn from General Lee's army and sent him. 

As has been stated previously, it was the plan of the con- 
federate authorities that General Jackson should, by his ope- 
rations in the Valley, keep the enemy continually in a state of 
alarm for the safety of Washington city and the neighboring 
country, and thus prevent- any assistance being sent from the 
Potomac to McClellan before Richmond ; and then, if such a 
movement should be found practicable, to elude the federal 
forces in the Valley, and hastening to Richmond, to cooperate 
with General Lee in'driving McClellan from the Chickahoininy. 

The first part of this programme had been entirely success- 
ful. McClellan, dreading an attack from General Lee, had 
called in vain for reinforcements. Jackson's movements had 
so terrified the federal government that McDowell's corps, 
which was intended to reinforce McClellan, was retained for 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 63 

the protection of Washington. General Lee having deter- 
mined to carry out the latter portion of his plan, ordered Gen- 
eral Jackson to march at once to his assistance. Leaving 
a merely nominal force to deceive the enemy, General Jack- 
son left the Valley on the 20th day of June, and marched 
towards Gordonsville. Meanwhile Fremont lay at Mount 
Jackson in blissful ignorance of this movement, and busied 
himself with fortifying his position, in order to resist the at- 
tack which he fancied General Jaekion was about to make 
upon him. The movement of General Jackson was very 
hazardous, and it was necessary to preserve the greatest secresy 
concerning it. The troops were ordered to mahrcain the 
strictest silence regarding it. They were instructed to' give 
no information to any one during the march. If questioned 
as^ to their destination, the names of their commanders, or 
from what place they had come, they were to re,ply : " I don't 
know. ' ' 

This gave rise to an amusing incident. On the second day 
of the march, one of the men belonging to Hood's brigade, 
(which had been detached from Lee's army and sent to Jack- 
son,) left the ranks, and started towards a cherry tree in a 
neighboring field. General Jackson, happening to be near, ob- 
served this, and riding up to the man, $sked : 

"Where are you going, sir?" 

"I don't know," replied the man coolly. 

*' To what command do you belong ?" 

" I don't know." 

" W e ^ ! what state are you from?" asked the general in 
great astonishment. • 

"I don't know," replied the man with the utmost gravity. 

Another straggler had now come up, and General Jackson 
turning to him, asked in surprise : 

" What is the meaning of this ?" 

"Why, you see," said the man, " Old Stonewall and Gene- 
ral Hood issued orders yesterday that we were not to know 



M LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

anything until after the next -fight ; and we are not going to 
disobey oruerri." 

The general smiled, and ordering the men to take their 
pieces in the ranks, rode off, much pleased with the fidelity 
with which his orders were executed. 

At Gordonsville the troops were embarked on the cars, and 
conveyed as far as Frederick's Hall in Louisa county. Leav- 
in<- the -cars there thev moved across the country, and on the 
evening of the 25th of June reached the little village of Ash- 
land in Hanover county, sixteen miles from Richmond, driving 
in the enamy's pickets, which were stationed near that place. 

At three o'clock on the morning of the 26th of June, Gene- 
ral Jackson left Ashland and moved towards Hanover court- 
house. From this point he bore gradually towards the Chicka- 
hoininy, until he had uncovered the front of Brigadier-gene- 
ral Branch, who was lying upon the bank of that stream where 
it is crossed by the Brook turnpike. General Branch imme- 
diately crossed the river, and moving down, uncovered the front 
of General A. P Hill, at the Meadow bridges. 

General Jackson now bore towards the Pamunkey, keeping 
down in the direction of the enemy's lines. Moving rapidly, 
he reached the neighborhood of the Old Church in Hanover 
county. He had now gained the rear of the enemy, and 
wheeling to the right, advanced towards- them for the purpose 
of cutting off their retreat. General A. P Hill crossed the 
Chickahominy at the Meadow bridges, drove the enemy from 
their strong works in the neighborhood of Mechanicsville, and 
opened a way for the passage of the river by the rest of the 
forces of General Longstreet. The next day, June 27th, the 
federal army was driven back to Gaines' Mill, where a stand 
was made. A fierce and vigorous assault was made upon the 
enemy's strongly entrenched position in the neighborhood of 
Gaines' Mill, and after a desperate struggle, the federals were 
driven from the works. During the battle a large force of the 
enemy was sent through the woods for the purpose of outflank- 



THOMAS J. JACKSON". C» 

ing the confederate left, and this rendered the situation of the 
-southern army very critical. It vvp.s known that General 
Jackson had been ordered to gain the enemy's rear and cut off 
his retreat : but as yet nothing had been heard from him. 
The enemy's column approached rapidly through the woods. 
In a short time the confederates would be completely out- 
flanked. At this moment a sheet of flame burst from the 
woods before them,, and a storm of balls swept through the 
hostile ranks. The enemy paused in surprise, while the fatal 
fire was hurled upon them move fiercely than before. 

A wild, and joyful cry rang along the southern lines, and the' 
•shout of "Jackson ! Jackson !" was passed from man to man. 
The conjecture was correct. Two or three brigades had been 
sent on in advance by General Jackson, and had arrived upon 
the scene of conflict just in time to decide the fate of the bat- 
tle. The enemy were driven from their works, brushed through 
the woods and forced into the fields around Cold Harbor. 
Rallying his troops here, General McClellan prepared for his 
last desperate effort on the north bank of the Chickahominy. 

Scarcely had he formed his line of' battle, when a terrific 
fire was opened upon him from his rear. General Jackson had 
now come up with his army, and the retreat of the enemy 
towards the White House was entirely cutioff. Quickly bringing 
his troops into action, General Jackson made a fierce and im- 
petuous attack upon the enemy, and the battle, which began 
at four o'clock in the afternoon, raged with fury at all points 
until lonf after dark. General McClellan had massed all of 
his army on that side of the river, at Cold Harbor, and his 
force was much. larger than that engaged in any of the previous 
battles. All of his efforts were in vain. Forced k:ck at all 
points, the enemy fled from the field, and crowded in dense 
masses along the shore of the river. That night they crossed 
over to the south side of the Chickahominy 
* The next morning, June 28th, General Jackson swept down 

the north bank of the river, and obtaining possession of the 
9 



$Q LIEUTENANT-^ SNERA h 

York river railroad, cut oif McClellan's communication -with 
his transports in the Pamunkey, and destroyed his telegraph. 
Had the movements of the officer charged with intercepting 
McClellan on the south side of the river been as well executed 
as those of General Jackson, the history of the "Young Ka- 
poleon" might have had another and a darker page added to it. 

On Sunday night, June 29th, General McClellan eluded the 
division sent to prevent his escape, and began his retreat to 
the James river. Th# pursuit was begun early the next mora- 
ine. General Jackson crossed to the south side of the Chick- 
ahominy, and followed in the trail of the enemy by the Wil- 
liamsburg road and Savage station. * He came up with them at 
White oak swamp about eleven o'clock in the morning. They 
had crossed the stream, however, burnt the bridge behind them, 
and to prevent the construction of another, had posted some 
forty or fifty pieces of artillery on the bank of the swamp. 
Bringing up his own artillery, General Jackson began a spirited 
engagement with them. While his artillery was engaged with 
the enemy, he moved his infantry to a point lower down the 
swamp, and began the construction of a bridge. Although 
his men worked upon it with energy, the bridge was not finished 
until the federal artillery had been withdrawn and night was 
coming on. General Jackson then crossed his troops and 
moved towards the enemy. 

Later in the evening General A. .P Hill met and repulsed 
the enemy at Frazier's farm, (Glenclaie.) McClellan then fell 
back to Malvern hill, and the confederate army pressed on in 
pursuit. 

On Tuesday, the 1st of July, was fought the desperate and 
bloody battle of Malvern hill. In this engagement General 
Jackson commanded the left of the southern line, and General 
Magruder the rifht. 

The federal army held a position of great strength; and 
although it could not be carried by assault, the attack of the 
.confederates inflicted such a severe loss upon the xmemy, and 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 67 

demoralized their army to such an extent, that General Mc- 
Clellan was forced to abandon Malvern hill, which he had de- 
termined to hold permanently, not daring to subject his army 
to another attack from the confederates, lest it should be utterly 
ruined. He abandoned the hill during the night and 'fell back 
to the James river. 

In this battle General Jackson had a very narrow escape. 
He was reconnoitering the position of the enemy, when a shell 
fell and exploded between the forelegs of his horse, fortunately 
without injuring either the horse or its rider. 

The plan of General Lea, save in one or two instances, re- 
sulting from the neglect of subordinates, had been successfully 
executed. General Jackson had promptly and ably seconded 
him in all of his efforts, a*d the assistance that he rendered 
during the brief but eventful campaign of the Chickahominy 
was incalculable. 

After being so completely outgeneraled by Jackson, Fre- 
mont was removed from his command, and succeeded by Major- 
general John Pope, or as he is better known, "Proclamation 
General Pope." 

The defeat of McClellan's army having put an end to the 
campaign in the Peninsula, the federal government resolved to 
make another effort to capture Richmond, by advancing Gene- 
ral Pope's army from the Rappahannock and Rapidan. Gene- 
ral Pope-Amoved his army across the mountains and appeared 
in the neighborhood of the Rapidan, and thus began his cele- 
brated campaign in Virginia. 

This General Pope had held, previous to his appearance in 
Virginia, the command of a division in the federal army under 
General Halleck, and had rendered himself quite famous by 
his lying propensities. He was the same officer who cap- 
tured (?) during the retreat of General Beauregard from Co- 
rinth, .the ten thousand confederate soldiers, who so singularly 
..disappeared after their capture. It is possible that this br£- 
liant exploit (?) procured him the command of Fremont's army. 



gg LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

From his "headquarters in the saddle," he issued the most 
■oomscms and absurd proclamations, in which he announced 
that there would be no more "lines of retreat," no more 
" bases of supplies," no more ditching or intrenching. He 
boasted, that in his previous career, he had not been able to 
see anything but the "backs" of his enemies, and promised 
his army a glorious victory whenever they should encounter 
the "rebels." He at once inaugurated a system of tyranny 
and oppression from which he was driven only by the stern 
but tardy measures of retaliation adopted by the confederate 
jtrovernment. The people and the country hi which his army 
was quartered, suffered severely from the infamous conduct of 
their " Northern brethren \f) and General Pope and his army 
will ever be remembered in Virginia by the shame that they 
won by their conduct. 

Feeling assured that the army of General McClellan was in 
no condition to give him any further uneasiness, General Lee 
determined to march upon General Pope, whose army was 
being greatly augmented every day, and drive him out of Vir- 
ginia. The plan that he adopted was a bold one, and would 
be attended with considerable risk. But the situation of the 
country at the time was such as to require^boldness and prompt- 
ness. 

With the bulk of the army, General Lee would advance and 
engage General Pope in front and towards his flanks, while 
General Jackson's corp;j was to cross the mountains, get into 
Pope's rear, and then marching to Manassas, seize his lines 
of communication with Washington and cut off his supplies. 
The movement assigned to General Jackson was attended with 
great risk, as the enemy might, at any time, by a rapid change 
of position, cut him off from the army of General Lee, and 
derange the whole plan of the campaign. Resolving, however, 
to put this plan into execution, and feeling assured that he 
could place the fullest reliance upon General Jackson's ability* 
to execute his portion of it, General Lee began to prepare for 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. <i',» 

the campaign. .General Jackson was sent ahead with his corp3 
to watch General Pope and hold him in check until the re- 
mainder of the army could arrive from Richmond, TRe army 
of General Pope having been greatly increased, and having 
assumed a very threatening attitude, it was found necessary to 
deal him a blow which should keep him quiet until General Lee 
could bring up his army. 

Accordingly General Jackson, on the 8th of June, advanced 
his forces to meet General Pope. Crossing the Rapidan and 
advancing about a mile into the county of Culpeper, the army 
halted for the night. 

Hearing that the confederates had crossed the Rapidan and 
were advancing to meet him, General Pope sent forward a 
strong army corps under General Banks to resist their ad- 
vance. On the 9th of August, the approach of this force 
being reported to General Jackson, he sent forward General 
Ewell's division to meet them. 

Advancing for about three miles, Ewell took position on the 
main road from Orange courthouse to Culpeper courthouse. 
His left hank rested on the Southwest mountain, and his artil- 
lery was placed in advantageous positions. As soon as he 
formed his line, General Ewell saw the advanced forces of 
the enemy, consisting of a large body of cavalry and several 
pieces of artillery, about a mile in front of him. Expecting 
that, as v they were advancing to meet him, they would make 
the attack, he waited some time for them to come on. 

Finding that the enemy was not disposed to attack him, Gen- 
eral Jackson resolved to advance upon them. Early's brigade 
(of Ewell's division) was thrown forward through the woods, 
and attacked the enemy's right flank. 

The engagement began at four o'clock in the afternoon, and 
soon became general. The cavalry, which constituted the 
federal advance, was driven back in great confusion, and the 
main line being thus uncovered, the battle raged with fury. 

As the action opened, the first division, commanded by 



7() LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

Bri^auter-goneral Charles S. Winder, was brought up. Its 
approach w-s revealed to the enemy by the^ large clouds of 
dust which arose from the road by which it was advancing, 
and the federals opening a heavy fire upon it with their long 
ramie cur:-, shelled it with great accuracy. General Winder 
was struck bv a shell as his division was moving forward ; his 
left ami was shattered, and he was wounded in the side. He 
was carried from the field and died in about an hour. 

The first division having come up, the line bore down heavily 
upon the enemy, and later in the evening, a portion of the di- 
vision of General A. P Hill, (who was now attached to Jack- 
son's corps';, having been brought into action. General Jackson 
advanced his whole line. The enemy resisted stubbornly, but 
just as the moon vrt.s rising and lighting up the scene with her 
palid rays, they fell bach in haste and abandoned the field. 
Thev were pursued for two miles. 

The artillery in this battle was most conspicuous throughout 
the day. The opposing batteries would unlimber so close to 
each other, that scarcely anything but grape and canister 
could be used. The Southern artillerists could distinctly h^ar 
the voices of the infantry supporting the federal batteries, and 
this too in ordinary conversation. The enemy's batteries were 
more numerous than those opposing them ; but notwithstand- 
ing this, so accurate was the fire of the Southern guns, that 
the federal batteries were compelled to change their position 
five different times. 

The enemy fell back to a thick woods, about two miles from 
the battle field. General Jackson advanced his artillery to 
these woods and shelled them during the night. The next day 
passed off very quietly, the enemy making no demonstration, 
and on the 11th they sent in a flag of truce, asking permission 
to bury their dead, and the day was spent in performing that 
duty. 

Having accomplished all that he desired, General Jackson, 
cT) the night of the 11th, withdrew his troops and retired 



THOMAS J. JACKSOX. 71 

across the Eapjdan. His army lay almost within musket 
range of a large force of the enemy, and yet so skillfully .and 
so successfully was the retreat effected, that the federals knew 
nothing, of it until the next morning, whenUiey found that the 
Southern forces had disappeared. 

In the battle of Cedar Kun the enemy had fifteen thousand 
men engaged, and were commanded by Generals Pope, Mc- 
Dowell, Seigle and Banks. They sustained a bloody defeat. 
Their loss was very heavy in killed and wounded, and has been 
estimated at from two to three thousand. Certainly it was very 
severe. General Gordon, commanding one of their brigades, 
speaks of his loss as follows : "I carried into action less than 
1,500 men. Host in about thirty minutes iQiFkilled, wounded 
and missing. * * * * As I approached, the enemy re- 
ceived me with a rapid and destructive fire. For at least 
thirty minutes this terrible fire continued. Companies were 
left without!^ officers, and men were falling in every direction 
from the fire of the enemy. * * * * It' was too evident 
that the spot that had toitnessed the destruction of. one brigade, 
would be, in a feiv minutes, the grave of mine. I had lost 
more than thirty in every hundred of my command." 

General Crawford, another of their officers, says in his re- 
port : "The whole woods became one sheet of fire and storm 
of lead. The enemy's infantry was crowded into the timber, 
and into some underbrush at our right, and they mowed our 
poor fellows down like grass. The overwhelming numbers of 
the enemy forced us to fall back, but only when not a field 
officer remained." 

Surely, if the rest of the federal army suffered in the same 
proportion, the estimate of its losses, given above, is very 
moderate. The enemy also lost about five hundred prisoners,., 
including one of their brigade comnSanders — General Prince — 
over fifteen hundredStetands of arms, two Napoleon guns, 
twelve wagon loads of ammunition, and several wagon loads of 
new clothing. 



72 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

The confederate force engaged was about eight thousand 
men, and their loss about six hundred killed, wounded and 
missing..^ 

General Jackson sent the following despatch to General 
Lee's adjutant general, announcing his victory: 

Headquarters, Valley District, 1 
August 11, 6.} A. M. ; 

Colonel: On the evening of the 9th instant God blessed our arms with 
another victory. The battle was near Cedar rim, about six miles from Cul- 
peper courthouse. The enemy, according to the statement of prisoners, 
consisted of Banks', McDowell's and Seigel's commands. Wo have over 
four hundred prisoners, including Brigadier-general Prince. Whilst our list 
of killed is less than that of the enemy, yet we have to mourn the loss of 
some of our best officers and men. Brigadier-general Charles S. Winder 
was mortally wounded whilst ably discharging his duty at the head of his 
command, which was the advance of the left wing of the army. We have 
collected about 1,500 small arms and other ordnance stores. 
I am, Colonel, your obd't serv't, 

T. J. Jackson, Major General, 
Col. E. II. Chilton, A. A. G. 

General Pope telegraphed to Washington news of "a great 
victory," but as in the case of the ten thousand men taken 
from Beauregard, he was utterly powerless to show any proof 
of his boasted achievements. 

Being satisfied that the enemy were evacuating their posi- 
tion on the James river, and that the army of General Mc- 
Cleilan would be sent to the assistance of General Pope, 
General Lee no longer felt any hesitation in removing his army 
from Richmond. By the. 17th of August be had assembled 
on the Ilapidan a force of sufficient strength to enable him to 
commence operations against Pope. It was necessary for him 
to act with promptness. The corps of General Burnside had 
been moved up to Aquia creek, and McClellan's army was 
leaving the James river. He must light Pone before these 
forces could reach him. The retreat of General Pope from 
the Itapidan, over the Rappahannock, however, caused some 
modification of this plan. 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 73 

General Jackson was ordered to gain Pope's rear, and' cut 
him off from Washington, while General Lee, by making a 
series of feints in the federal commander's front, W&ild draw 
off his attention from the movement of General Jackson. 

On the 20th of August, General Jackson crossed the Rapi- 
dan about eight miles northeast of Orange courthouse, and on 
the evening of the 21st reached Beverley's ford, six miles west 
of Brandy station, on the Orange and Alexandria railroad. 
At this point a considerable xorce of the enemy occupied the 
left bank of the river. The next day was spent in skirmish- 
ing with them ; and late in the day the march was resumed, 
and on the 23d of August General Jackson appeared on the 
bank of the Rappahannock at; the little village of Jefferson- 
ton, opposite the Warrenton springs in Fauquier county. 
General Early's brigade was thrown across the river, but the 
stream swelling with great rapidity, (owing to heavy rains 
haying fallen recently), the rest of the troops were unable to 
cross. The situation of Early was perilous in the extreme ; 
but the enemy did not take advantage of it. The next even- 
ing, the bridge over the Rappahannock, which the enemy had 
destroyed, having been completed, General Ewell crossed over 
with Lawton's brigade to Early's assistance. The enemy hur- 
riedly massed large bodies of troops at the springs to resist 
the advance of the confederates. During the night the bri- 
gades of Early and Lawton recrossed the river and rejoined 
the main column. 

By his rapid movements along the river, General Jackson 
had induced the enemy to believe that he contemplated a pas- 
sage of it near the springs : had perplexed them greatly in 
their efforts to discover tne true point where he wished to cross 
the stream, and had drawn off a large body of troops from 
the main column. , Tjm division of General R. H. Anderson, 
having come up from'' Gordonsville, was left to watch and 
amuse the enemy, (who remained drawn up in line of battle 
at Warrenton Springs all cUy on Monday 25th), General Jack- 
10 * 



LUSUTflNANT-GBNERAf. 



son, on the morning of the 25th, pushed on up the river to- 
wards Flint Hili, in the county of Rappahannock. The 
enemy hearing that a large force of confederates was moving 
towards the mountains, supposed that it wag the division of 
General Ewell, making a demonstration to cover the retreat of 
Jackson, who was supposed to be falling back to Gordonsville. 

When the army had passed the little village of Amisyille, 
it wheeled suddenly to the right, and moving rapidly over a 
rugged and unused road, crossed the Rappahannock at a point 
about fifteen miles above Warrenton springs. The passage 
of the* stream was exceedingly difficult, and might have been 
successfully resisted by the enemy, but they had no force 
there. Avoiding the hills, and marching across fields and 
lanes, the corps halted for the night near the town of Salem, 
in Fauquier county. General Jackson had now turned the 
right flank of the enemy, and was rapidly gaining his rear. 

The next morning, the 26th, the march was resumed inthe 
direction of Thoroughfare gap, where the Manassas gapn-ail- 
road passes through the Bull run mountains. Here General 
Jackson expected to encounter a portion of the federal force. 
Fortunately this strong pass, which a small force of brave 
men might have held against his whole army, had been left 
unguarded, and there was nothing to oppose the march of the 
confederate troops. Moving his army rapidly through the gap, 
General Jackson hurried on in the direction of Gainesville, 
which he reached late in the day. 

General Pope has declared, in his official report, that he 
was, from the first, fully aware of all of Jackson's movements. 
If this be, true. General Pope must have been the greatest sim- 
pleton upon record. He left his rear entirely unprotected, 
and made no effort whatever to resist the progress of Jack- 
son, which, he says, was so well known to him, and so "care- 
fully noted." A mere handful of m&riftbuld have checked, if 
they could not have prevented, Jackson's advance at at least 
half a dozen points. The truth is, however, that the move- 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. < 5 

ments of General Jackson were so rapid, and th; operations 
of the cavalry under "General Stnart, between his corps and 
the enemy, so completely covered those movements, that Gene- 
ral Pope was entirely ignorant of them,, until General Jack- 
son had fully gained his rear. 

Arriving at Gainesville, the corps wheeled to the right and 
marched to Bristow station, on the Orange and Alexandria 
railroad, which was reached after night. The small force and 
the military stores left there- by the enemy were captured. 
Several trains of cars, returning to Washington, were also 
captured. One, however, succeeded in getting by and tele- 
graphed the alarm from Manassas to Alexandria. Those com- 
ing from the opposite direction returned from the points from 
which they had started and g*ve the alarm. 

Learning that the enemy had established a large depot of 
supplies at Manassas, General Jackson ordered Generals Trim- 
ble and Stuart to proceed thither at once and occupy the place. 
Bjwhidnight they reached Manassas, and captured the entire 
force stationed there. At Manassas Junction the enemy had 
established an immense depot of supplies. The confederates 
captured an extensive bakery, which was capable of turning 
out 15,000 loaves of bread daily, several thousand barrels of 
flour, large quantities of corn and oats, two thousand barrels 
of pork, one thousand barrels of beef, fifty thousand pounds 
of bacon, several trains of cars with large loads of stores, and 
ten first class locomotives. . 

The next day, the 27th, after leaving General Bwell at 
Bristow, General Jackson occupied Manassas with the rest of 
his corps. 

The federal authorities at Washington, upon receiving in- 
formation of the capture of Manasjj.s, supposed that it had 
been done by a small force, and^ looked upon the affair a=? a 
mere raid. 'A 2^e«|prsey brig^||iAomposed of five regi- 
ments, under BrigVlier-general Taylor, was se'nt from Alex- 
andria "to chase the rebels awny."' The brigade left rh<> 



76 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

cars at Bull run bridge, about 11 o'clock on the morning of 
the 27th, and moved rapidly towards *the junction. They 
were allowed to approach within a few hundred yards of the 
fortifications around the junction, not having met with any 
enemy save a line of skirmishers, who retired before them. 
As they came within range of the heavy guns a rapid fire was 
opened upon them, driving them back to a ridge of hills, 
which sheltered them from the fatal storm. Throwing forward 
his infantry; General Jackson drove them from their place of 
refuge back to Bull run. Crossing that stream at Blackburn's 
ford, they fled towards Centreville, hotly*pursucd by the cav- 
alry and horse artillery of General Stuart, which inflicted great 
loss upon them. The pursuit was continued beyond Centre- 
ville, the enemy flying in the wildest confusion. The brigade 
was almost annihilated. General Taylor was wounded, and 
so was nearly every officer in his command. 

General Heintzelman's corps of McClellan's army had 
reached General Pope's lines and lay at Rappahannock sta- 
tion, when news was received of the capture of Bristow. Gene- 
ral Heintzelman had been informed that a "raid" had been 
made upon the railroad, but he sagaciously judged that the 
movement must be one of great magnitude, and at once ad- 
vanced with his whole corps towards Bristow. A sharp en- 
gagement ensued late in the clay, in which the enemy were 
repulsed with considerable loss, and forced back for some dis- 
tance. The officer in immediate command during the attack, 
was General Joseph Booker. 

Not wishing to expose his troops to the danger of being 
separated when the enemy should advance upon him, General 
Jackson had* ordered General Eweli to occupy his position un- 
til the enemy should make their appearance, and then to check 
their progress and rejoin the main body of the corps at Ma- 
nassas. Having checked the advance ofgthe*, enemy, General 
Ewell withdrew his troopVsl tiring the nigwand rejoined Gene- 
ral Jackson. 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 77 

In the meantime, General Lee having been informed of the 
success of Jackson's movements, had advanced with the re- 
mainder of the army to his assistance, intending to throw his 
entire force in the enemy's rear. Longstreet's corps, which 
had been amusing the enemy during Jackson's march, now 
swept around from the river and marched towards Thorough- 
fare gap. 

Startled by the news that General Jackson had gained his 
rear, General Pope awoke to a sense of his danger, and prepared 
to meet it. General Jackson was in the very heart of the country 
occupied by the federal troops, cut off, for the time, from all as- 
sistance from the army of General Lee, and in danger of being 
completely hemmed in by the dense masses of the enemy. 
His situation Avas desperate, and to a commander of less genius, 
might have been fatal. General Pope saw this and resolved 
to endeavor to profit by it. Sending Rickett's division to oc- 
cupy and hold Thoroughfare gap, and thus prevent Jackson 
from receiving any assistance or effecting a retreat through it, 
he moved up from Fauquier with his army, for the purpose of 
forcing his way through Jackson's line, and recovering his 
•communications with Washington. The federal army had 
been reinforced by a portion of the troops of General Mc- 
Clellan, and the rest of that army was on the Potomac and 
on its way to join Pope. Relying upon his great strength, 
General Pope moved forward with rapidity. His column was 
advancing upon the front of General Jackson, McClellan's 
troops were approaching in his rear, and Burnside, who was 
advancing from Fredericksburg, was marching upon- his flank. 
General Jackson's situation was now perilous in the extreme. 
His forces did not consist of more than 20,000 men, and these 
were almost broken "down by their extraordinary marches, and 
his supply of food was very short, not exceeding rations for a 
day and a half. His train was sixty miles off, having been 
unable to keep up with him in his advance. The head of 
General Longstrcet's column had only arrived at the western 



i'< 



LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 



extremity of Thoroughfare gap, thirty miles distant, and be- 
tween that column and his own was a federal force of 90,000 
men. The enemy ha"d occupied the gap and it was by no 
means certain that General Longstreet would be able to force 
a passage through it. In this critical situation General Jack- 
son could choose between only two alternatives : either to 
fio-ht the enemy and -endeavor to hold them in check until 
General Longstreet could come up, or to retreat to the Valley 
of Virginia by way of Centreville and Leesburg. If he chose 
the former, he would have to encounter the danger of being 



Jh 



to~* "^'"o 



overwhelmed and cut to pieces before Longstreet could come 
up ; if the latter, to run the risk of having his retreat inter- 
cepted by the column which was approaching from Alexandria. 
In either case his condition would be extremely perilous. The 
enemy were closing in upon him. and it was necessary for bim 
to decide at once. The darker the clouds seemed to close 
around the heroic general, the more brilliantly did his genius 
shine out above them, and never was this more strikingly-ex- 
emplified than at this moment. Without hesitation he re- 
solved to meet the enemy and resist the advance. As soon as 
General -E well's division rejoined him, he set fire to the depot 
and stores captured at Manassas, and moved off in the direc- 
tion of Bull Run, the darkness of the night covering his move- 
ments. Upon reaching Bull run, he halted and formed his 
line near the Sudley church, almost on the very spot that had 
witnessed the heroic struggle of the 21st July 1861. By this 
movement he brought his forces much nearer to the main body 
of the enemy under General Pope, but at the same time short- 
ened the distance between himself and General Longstreet. 
In this position he could fight the enemy the next day, and if 
General Longstreet should be successful in forcing a passage 
through Thoroughfare gap, he could fall upon the enemy's rear 
and assist General Jackson. Or if he should be forced to re- 
treat, he had now an open way by which he could move into 
the Valley. His troops marched all night over a rough and 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 79 

rugged country. The morning of Thursday, the 28th of July, 
found them drawn up' along the banks of Bull run, weary and 
hungry, and awaiting the advance of the enemy It seemed 
that they had caught the spirit of their leader, for in spite of 
their sufferings, they uttered not a murmur, but eagerly awaited 
the coming conflict. The right of the line was composed of 
the 1st division (General Jackson's old division) under Gene- 
ral Taliaferro ; the centre, of A. P Hill's division, while 'Ewell 
held the left ; the troop's facing Manassas junction. 

In order to reopen his communications with Washington, it 
was necessary for General Pope to get his army across Bull 
run and defeat General Jackson. The route that he had 
chosen for the retrograde movement of his army was over the 
Stone bridge and the Sudley ford, and General Jackson now 
occupied a position directly in his path. 

Early on the morning of the 28th, the cavalry under Gene- 
ral Stuart, encountered the enemy's cavalry near Gainesville 
on the Warrenton turnpike, and drove them back. Later in 
the day, the 2nd brigade of the 1st division, under Colonel 
Bradley Johnson, again repulsed them. A heavy column, 
under Seigel and McDowell, was now advancing upon Jack- 
son's position, and a desperate encounter was near at hand. 
General Jackson at once ordered General Taliaferro to advance 
with his division and attack them. Ewell and A. P Hill were 
to follow him, and engage the enemy when they came up with 
them. General Taliaferro had gone about three miles, when 
he found that the enemy had abandoned the Sudley road and 
were advancing upon him from the Warrenton turnpike. Gene- 
ral Jackson at once moved up his other divisions and formed 
his line near the little village of Groveton ; his right resting 
above and near the village, and his left upon the old battle 
field of Manassas. The action began at five o'clock in the 
afternoon, the enemy making the attack in several heavy col- 
umns. It was opened by an artillery combat at long range, 
but gradually the distance between the two armies shortened, 



gO LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

and by six o'clock they were within easy musket range of each 
other. A furious attack was made upon the division of Gene- 
ral Taliaferro, and gallantly and successfully repulsed. Hill 
and Ewell now came into, action, and the battle became gene- 
ral along the whole line. The federal troops had been in- 
formed by their commanders, that Jackson had been "caught 
in a complete trap," with a small force, and that it was only 
necessary to make a determined effort, to annihilate him. In- 
spired by this thought, they fought with great desperation. 
Several times they advanced to force the Southern lines with 
the bayonet, but each time were driven back with terrific fury. 
Night came, but the battle continued to rage furiously. Gradu- 
ally the enemy fell back. Finally they abandoned the field, 
and by nine o'clock the battle was over, General Jackson re- 
maining in undisputed possession of the field, having success- 
fully repulsed the enemy at all points. 

Although the battle had been so severe, General Jackson's 
loss was small in proportion to that of the enemy, being be- 
tween 800 and 1,000 killed and wounded. But among these 
were Generals Trimble and Taliaferro, two gallant officers 
wounded, and the brave old Ewell, whose very presence was a 
tower of strength to the army, lost a leg. 

The enemy's loss has never been accurately ascertained, but 
was very heavy. 

The night passed away in silence, and the troops, wearied by 
fatigue and hunger, spent it in resting upon their arms, await- 
ing the renewal of the conflict the next day. 

While the battle was going on near Groveton, stirring events 
were transpiring in another direction. 

As soon as General Jackson had gained Pope's rear, General 
Longstreet had been ordered to move with speed to his assist- 
ance. He reached Thoroughfare gap late on the 27th of Au- 
gust, and found it occupied by the enemy. 

Thoroughfare gap is an abrupt opening in the range of the 
.Bull run mountains. Its width varies from one hundred to 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 81 

two hundred yards. A swift mountaing3tream rushes through 
the pass, and along its bank winds a rugged and difficult road 
and th^track of the Manassas gap railroad. On the left hand 
the mountains rise up perfectly perpendicularly, and on the 
Fight t!fe' # thick timber and undergrowth render it impossible 
for any but the most active men to obtain a foothold upon it. 
The famous pass of Thermopylae sinks into insignificance when 
compared with this in strength. That pass was turned by a 
mountain road ; this had no such weak point. The force of 
the enemy occupying it consisted of General 'Ricketts' division 
and several batteries of artillery. _ 

In spite of the great advantages possessed by the enemy, 
General Longstreet resolved to drive them *from the gap, and 
pass his troops through it. On the morning of the 28th, he 
moved forward *and engaged them, and during the day suc- 
ceeded in driving their entire force from the pass. With the 
thunder of the guns at Gjrove.ton ringing in their ears, the gal- 
lant Southerners emerged from the gap, on the eastern side S ' 
and bore aware towards* Manassas. 

Tfo# passage of Thoroughfare gap was one of the most bril- 
liant exploits of the caimjaign, and reflects the highest credit 
upon the gallant general and brave men who effected it. It 
was "accomplished with a loss of only three men wounded. 

Upon arriving within supporting distance of General Jack- 
son, General Longstreet moved to the neighborhood of Sud- 
ley church and took position on the left. The plan of Gene- 
ral Lee was now nearly accomplished. He had* moved his 
entire army around the enemy and had gotten into their rear. 
The army had endured hardships and privations innumerable, 
but these, so far from depressing it, had inspired it with an 
enthusiasm that was irresistible. 

The morning of the 29th of August dawned beautifully over' 
the scenes of such fearful strife. General Jackson's corps oc- 
cupied a position a little in advance of that which it had held 
during; the previous evening. All of General Longstreet's' 
11 



s?, LIEUT E N A X T - 3 E N E K A L 



forces had not yet colte upland his line was not completely 
formed. Later in the day all the troops were present,, and the 
lines fully established. % 

Early in the morning the enemy made a feeble attack upon 
General Ewell's division, and were quickly repulsed with great 
slaughter. The confederate artillery opening upon them in 
their flight, added greatly to their sufferings. About four 
o'clock in the afternoon. General Pope made a desperate at- 
tempt to force the Southern lines asunder, and effect a passage 
through them. The attack was made upon the command of 
General Jackson, and soon afterwards extended along the whole 
line. General Lee, late in the afternoon, seeing that the 
enemy were receiving strong reinforcements, ordered General 
Hood (of Longstreet's corps) to move with his division, and 
make a demonstration upon their i%ht. Hodtl moved up rap- 
idly and soon became warmly engaged with tjhe enemy, and 
when the battle closed, had driven 4bein three-quarters 'of a 
mile. This movement compelled* the, federal commander to 
change his line very materially. 

Profiting by this assistance, General Jackson advanced his 
troops with great energy; The baJJle raged hotly on both 
wings of the army, and the enemy fought with great vigor. 
About nine o'clock they fell back sullenly and left the 'con- 
federate forces in possession of the field. 

The confederate loss was small in proportion to. the number 
engaged and the fierceness of the conflict. The enemy ac- 
knowledged a loss of eight thousand killed and wounded. The 
Northern papers estimated the losses in Pope's army, in the 
various conflicts previous to the 29th, at nine thousand men, 
making in all a total of seventeen thousand men. 

During the night General Lee ordered the troops to fall 
back nearer to Manassas Plains, intending to take position 
there and offer the enemy battle the next day. The night 
was spent by the troops in occupying the positions assigned 
them. They were greatly in need of rest, and very much 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 88 

weakened by abstinence from food, and* yet, in this w.eak and 
exhausted Condition, they were on the morrow to fight the 
greatest battle that had yet been fought in America. 

The morning of the ever memorable 80th of August came 
at last. The confederate army now occupied a position dif- 
ferent from any that it had yet held. The' line of battle ex- 
tended fdr* over five miles, and was in the form of an obtuse 
crescent. Jackson's corps held the left, and his line extended 
from th'e Sudley ford, on Bull run, along the jsartiy excavated 
track of the Manassas independent line of railroad for a por- 
tion of the way, and thence towards a point on the Warrenton 
turnp&e %bout a mile and a half west of Groveton. The 1st 
division (now commanded by General Starke) was on the right ; 
Ewell's division (under General Lawton) in the centre, and A. 
P. Hill on the left. From Jackson's right, extended Long- 
street's line, which formed the right wing of the army, stretch- 
ing beyond the Manassas gap railroad. In the centre, between 
«fackson's and Longstreet's lines, a strong force of artillery 
was posted upon an eminence which commanded a large por- 
tion of the field. 

The enemy, in order to engage General Lee, had now to 
ffonform his line to that of the Southern army. Consequently 
the federal line took the fortn of a crescent, the centre (greatly 
advanced) being at Groveton, and the wings inclining obliquely 
to the right and left. General Heintzelman held the federal 
right and General McDowell the left, while the corps of Gen- 
eral Fitz John Porter and Siegel, and Reno's, division of Burn- 
side's army, formed the centre. 

Thus tl?e advantage lay with General, Lee, The confede- 
rate army (especially the corps of General Jackson) occupied 
theggroufld upon which the enemy fought the first battle of 
MamTssas, and the federal army the ground held by the con- 
federates that clay — the positions of the two armies on the 21st 
being completely reversed on the present occasion. 

The federal artillery was posted on the hills in the rear of 
their infantry. 



g4 LIBUTENANT-GENBBAL 

About twelve o'clock M. the battle was opened between the 
artillery of the two armies— the enemy making the attack. 
The firing was very rapid, and was kept up with great spirit. 

A little after two o'clock the enemy advanced a strong col- 
umn of infantry and began a spirited attack upon General 
Jackson's line. Advancing under the cover of a heavy fire of 
artillery to within musket range of the Southern lines, they 
ooened a rapid fire which was responded to with fatal_ effect. 
Shortly after this>a second column of the enemy, and then a 
third, advanced to support the first. Jackson's infantry hurled 
a deadly fire upon them, and unable to endure it, they repeat- 
edly broke and ran, and it required all of the efforts of* their 
officers to rally them again. Jackson's artillery was now moved* 
to the left, and a destructive fire was opened upon the federal 
columns. The battle was going on hotly, and the infantry 
were doing effective service, but the fire of the artillery was 
terrific. Shot and shell tore through*the federal ranks, at each 
discharge bringing down scores to the ground, breaking the* 
line of the enemy and throwing them into confusion. The 
order was given to charge, and the infantry sweeping down 
with the force of a whirlwind, drove the bewildered foe from 
the field at the point of the bayonet. Thus in half an hour* 
the forces of Generals Sykes and Morell, the most celebrated 
corps of the federal army, were driven in confusion from the 
field by a smaller force of confederates. 

General Jackson's line, which, it will be remembered, ex- 
tended from Bull run to the Warren ton turnpike, had been 
considerably advanced during this brief engagement. His 
left, which had advanced more rapidly than his right, had 
moved around by the Pittsylvania house, and was forcing the 
enemy towards the turnpike and driving them'down upon»$ten- 
oral Longstreet's position ; thus clearly demonstrating the 
wisdom of General Lee's formation of his line of battle. 

liQngstreet was not slow to perceive his advantage. His 
troops were at once thrown forward, and now the whole line 
was advancing upon the enemy. The federals were being 



THOMAS 3, JACKSON. 86 

heavily reinforced, and dense masses of fresh trqppa were 
feeing rapidly brought into action. Dashing upon the exposed 
left flank of the enemy, which was in front of him, General 
Longstreet, in spite of this, drove them furiously before him. 
While Longstreet outflanked and drove the enemy on the left, 
Jackspn pressed heavily upon their right. The two wings of 
the crescent line were gradually drawing nearer together and 
enclosing the enemy between them. Sweeping upon th^m in 
those irresistible charges which have become so famous, the 
veterans of Jackson and Longstredt i|broke the federal col- 
umns and chased them from the field. Dashing on, at the, 
head of his troops, with his whole soul glowing with Che genius 
of battle, General Jackson exhibited the greatest heroibm, 
Under th^ guidance of such a general, and stimulated by such 
an example, *it is no wonder thatHbis troops were inllncible. 

Long after darkness the battle raged, the enemy beiijg 
driven at all points, and after nine o'clock they abandoned the 
field and fled.ingloriously across Bull run. ^o rapid was their 
flight that it was impossible for the confederates to keep up 
with them. 

General'Pope abandoned his wounded without making any 
■provision for them.** They were kindly cared for by the con- 
federate commander, until the federals could attend to them. 

The enemy's loss in this second battle of Manassas was very 
heavy. The confederate loss was much less, but at present 
unknown to me. It has been said, and I am convinced of the 
truth of the assertion, that the enemy's losses on the 27th, 
28th, 29th and 80th of August, numbered thirty-five thousand 
men. 

A scanty allowance of food, the first they had eaten for 
four days, was issued to the army on the morning of the 31st. 
It consisted of beef without bread. 

The enemy now occupied the heights of Centreville and 
Germantown, and from ihese General Lee resolved to dislodge 
them. General Jackson was ordered -to turn their right flank. 



gg LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

He set out at two o'clock in the afternoon, and at night en- 
camped in Pleasant valley, fifteen miles from the battle field. 
Here, for the first time since the march began on the 25th, 
the men enjoyed an unbroken night's rest, and here again they 
were compelled to go without food. ^ 

On the next day, (September 1st) upon nearing the enemy's 
lines, General A. P Hill's division was attacked by the enemy, 
who wished to protect the removal of their trains from Cen- 
treville to Alexandria. The battle was fought at Germantown, 
a small village in Fairfax county; near the main roa*d from 
Centreville to Fairfax courthouse. The federal troops having 
been rallied by their commanders, marched out from Centre- 
ville and fell upon Hill's division, which constituted Jackson's 
advance. After a brief, but desperate fight, they were routed 
and dri||en in confusion towards Alexandria, losing many of 
their n'mber and all of their artillery. Generals Kearney 
and Stevens were killed — the former left dead on the field. 
The confederate 4oss was very slight. , 

In this brief campaign, the enemy lost upwards of thirty- 
five thousand men killed, wounded and prisoners, many mil- 
lions of- dollars worth of stores and other property, "over thirty 
pieces of cannon, and many small arms. The confederate loss 
was about fire thousand men. The enemy had been driven 
into the lines of Washington, and were now trembling for the 
safety of their capital. The campaign had been, in every 
respect, brilliant and successful, 

On Tuesday, 2nd of September, the corps of General Long- 
street came up, and the army, for the first time enjoyed a full 
allowance of food. 

Having driven the enemy within the lines of Washington, 
General Lee resolved to cross the Potomac and enter Mary- 
land. Several motives have been attributed to him by the 
press and public, as. inducing him to take this step. The prin- 
cipal of these are — 1st, that he wished to liberate and hold 
the state of Maryland, believing that the condition of affairs 



IH0JVLA3 J. JaCX.SOX. 87 

warranted such a step. 2nd, that he simply wished to capture 
the column of federal troops stationed at Harpers Ferry. 
Much fruitless discussion has been, engaged ip by the friends 
of these opposite propositions, and it may seem out of place 
to mention them here,. but for the completeness of this narra- 
tion it wilf be necessary to refer >to them briefly. This I skall 
do fufther on, simply stating here that I accept the hitter pro- 
position as embodying the true reason of General Lee for 
crossing the Potomac. 

On the .3d of September, General Jackson moved off •from 
Germantown in the direction of Lecsburg, and 'halted for the 
night at Drainesville. He reached Leesburg the next day. 
On Friday, the- 5th pf Sen^mber, he crossed the Potomac, 
and took the way to Frederick city $u Maryland. 

The paVsage of the Potomac was thrg"l»ng beyond descrip- 
tion. The men sprmg forward with wild and enthusiastic 
cheers, and were soon over the river and upon th^ shores of 
the United States. Each man felt himself the atvenger of. a 
wronged and outraged state, and believed that he came to offer 
to a gallant but enslaved people the prescious boon of liberty. 
Their anticipations were, however, soon'checked by the very 
cool reception with which they were met. They had believed 
that men" would come crowding into their ranks, and that the 
whole population would receive them with open arms. They 
had entered the worst portion of the state, and consequently 
ought not to have entertained such bright hopes. Western 
Maryland, like Western Virginia, was too thoroughly attached 
to the Union, to. hail with delight the advance of a Southern 
army. It comprised but a very small portion of the state, 
and all persons who believed then that General Lee desired to 
liberate Maryland, beheld with regret his entrance into that 
portion of it. The friends of the South were, with a few ex- 
ceptions, all east of Frederick county, and the friends of the 
.Union, in and West of it. The few Southern men in the sec- 
tion occupied by the confederate army, not knowing the nature 



gg LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

of the invasion, were afraid to act at once. To those who 
know how much, they had to dread from the tyranny of the 
federal government, this wjll not seem strange. 

Before reaching Frederick city,«%neral Jackson was- pre- 
sented with a nfagnificent gray charger. This act, which was 
urq^opted by the most enthusiastic admiration for the general^ 
came very near proving fatal to him, for he had scarcely 
mounted the horse before the animal became frightened, threw 
him, and came very near breaking his neck. 

On Saturday, the 6th of September, the army entered Fred- 
erick city. Here they were permitted to purchase such arti- 
cles as they wanted, for Confederate money. On Monday 
confederate money was refused, |jnd the prices of articles ad- 
vanced. The troops most scrupulously avoided interfering 
with the inhabitant^ $nd every right that they possessed was 
most faithfully respected. Persons of Known hostility to the 
South wery, treated with great kindness — the conduct of the 
confederate- army being in marked contrast with that of the 
federal forces, when occupying Southern territory. 

On the 8th of September, "General Lee issued his procla- 
mation, inviting the people of Maryland to rise in defence of 
their homes and liberties. This, however, was impossible, for 
reasons which will be stated further on. Only about eight 
Jiundred recruits were obtained during this campaign. 

On Wednesday, the 10th of September, the army moved 
forward towards Hagerstown. The greatest excitement now 
prevailed among the troops. They thought they were ad- 
vancing into Pennsylvania, and stimulated by the prospect of 
visiting upon the enemy in his own country- some of the hor- 
rors that had been perpetrated upon the South, they pushed 
on with the greatest delight. At night the corps of General 
Jackson halted at Boonsbbro', on the national road, ten miles 
from Hagerstown, while a small party of cavalry, for the pur- 
pose of .diverting the enemy's attention, made a raid into Penn- 
sylvania. 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 89 

The whole North was now thrown into a perfect fever of ex- 
citement. The invasion of Maryland had filled the entire 
Union with the greatest surprise and terror, and these feelings 
were heightened by the advance of General Lee* in the direc- 
tion of Hagerstown. It was rumored that Jackson was enter- 
ing Pennsylvania by at least a dozen different directions. The 
routed forces of General Pope had crowded in confusion into 
the lines of Washington, and mutinous and demoralized, re- 
fused to fight again under that general. There was but one 
man who could bring order out of such confusion, and that 
man was General McCleilan. Nothing in the history of the 
war is more stegular than the influence possessed by General 
McCleilan over his troops. During the entire period in which 
he held the ©ommand of the. federal army, he was never suc- 
cessful in any of his undertakings. He was defeated in every 
pitched battle, and in a majority of the minor engagements, 
driven with loss and in dismay from tbe Chickahominy to the 
James, and outgeneralled upon every occasion. Yet in spite 
of all these misfortunes, the confidence which his troops re- 
posed in him never wavered, and his influence over them never 
diminished. Undoubtedly he was the most skillful commander 
that the armies of the Union could boast of, but he had the 
misfortune to contend against Lee, Johnston and Jackson. 

The failure of the Peninsula campaign had placed General 
McCleilan in bad repute with his government, and it was with 
great reluctance that they summoned him to the command of 
the army again. Yielding to the necessity of the occasion, 
they removed General Pope and placed General McCleilan at 
the head of the army once more. Hastily reorganizing the 
remnants of Pope's army, and leaving a strong force for the 
protection of Washington city, General McCleilan advanced 
towards Frederick for the purpose of engaging the army of 
General Lee. The skill exhibited by him in this movement, 
won for him considerable praise both North and South. His 
object in hastening after General Lee was to prevent the inva- 

. 12 



yO LrSUTHNANT-GENHRAL 

sion of Pennsylvania, or, if necessary, to relieve Harpers Ferry, 
and by throwing his army between that of General Lee and 
the Potomac, to cut off his retreat into Virginia. 

Having resotved upon the capture of Harpers Ferry, Gene- 
ral Lee began to put his plan into operation. The approach 
of General McClellan, which was reported to him, rendered it 
necessary to" act with great promptness. The army was divi- 
ded into three portions — Jackson's and Longstreet's corps, 
and & strong force under Major-general D. H. Hill. The col- 
umn of General D. H. Hill was to occupy the passes of the 
South mountain and hold McClellan in check, while Jackson 
would recross the Potomac and capture Harpergj»Ferry. The 
corps of General Longstreet would remain within supporting 
distance of both Jackson and Hill, and render, assistance to 
either as necessity might require. 

On Thursday morning, (the 11th September) the corps of 
General Jackson left Boonsboro' and continued to advance in 
the direction of Hagerstown. Upon reaching a point about a 
mile beyond Boonsboro', it suddenly wheeled to the left and 
marched to the Potomac, which was crossed at Wiiliamsport. 
On the 12th, the corps entered Martinsburg. The federal 
forces stationed there had retired to Harpers Ferry, upon 
hearing of the approach of the confederates. After halting 
for a few hours to refresh his men, General Jackson hurried 
on in. the direction of Harpers Ferry, and about noon on the 
18th, encamped about three miles from that place. 

While the corps of General Jackson was to attack Harpers 
Ferry from the direction of Bolivar, the division of General 
McLaws was to occupy the Maryland heights, and General 
Walker's forces to hold those on the Loudoun side of the She- 
nandoah, thus completely hemming in the federal forces. 

As soon- as he readied the point at which he halted, General 
Jackson signalled the heights opposite him in order to ascer- 
tain whether the other forces had come up. No reply was 
received ; and during the day the signals were repeated, but 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 91 

still remained unanswered, and it was feared that the attempt 
to occupy the heights had failed. It was known that General 
McClellan was rapidly approaching the army of General Lee, 
and it was necessary that the works at Harpers Ferry should 
be carried at once. The day and the night passed aw,af in 
painful suspense. The morning of the 14th came*", and the 
signals were repeated. An answer was returned from the 
Loudoun heights : Walker had reached his position ; but noth- 
ing was heard from McLaws. Later in the day the signals 
were again repeated, and McLaws answered from the Mary- 
land heights. He had succeeded, after encountering numerous 
difficulties, in reaching and occupying the heights, driving the 
federal force stationed there into the tbwn of Harpers Ferry. 
General Jackson at once advanced his troops and invested the 
town. His line was drawn completely around it, from the Po- 
tomac to the Shenandoah. A. P Hill's division held the 
right, Ewell's the centre, and the 1st (Jackson's) the left. 
Thus the enemy were completely enclosed within the Southern 
lines. 

In order to make«a more effectual resistance, the enemy 
abandoned a number of outworks and retired within their prin- 
cipal defences, and the troops of General Jackson at once 
occupied the abandoned works. 

It was now very late in the day. and General Jackson re- 
solved to defer the final assault until the next morning. At 
night he sent to Generals McLaws and Walker orders to open 
their fire upon the town the next 'morning at sunrise, accom- 
panying them with the following characteristic message : 

"I have occupied and now hold the enemy's first line of en- 
trenchments, and, with the blessing of God, will capture the 
whole force early in the morning." 

At sunrise on the morning of the 15th of September, a 
heavy cannonade was opened upon the enemy's works from all 
quarters. It was responded to feebly. A little before ten 
o'clock, General Jackson ordered General A. P. Hill to ad- 



92 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

vance with his division and storm the federal entrenchments. 
The order was obeyed with alacrity, but just as Hill arrived 
within two hundred yards of the enemy's works, a white flag 
was hung out from them. General Hill at once sent forward 
an aid to enquire the cause of this, and at 10 o'clock received 
the sword of General White, who had succeeded to the com- 
mand of the federal troops after the fall of General Miles, 
wKo had been-mortally wounded during the engagement. The 
firing ceased, and the troops entered and took possession of 
the place. 

The terms of the surrender, accorded by General Jackson 
were most liberal. The officers were allowed to retain their 
private property, and they, taking advantage of this privilege, 
carried off' a large portion of the public property, together 
with a number of negroes, whom they claimed to have brought 
with them from the North. Many of these negroes were re- 
cognised by their owners, who lived in the surrounding coun- 
try, and recovered. Seventeen wagons were loaned the officers 
to carry off their baggage, and were detained for a long time, 
and then returned in a very damaged- condition. The men 
were paroled and allowed to depart, and afterwards exchanged. 
General Jackson captured at Harpers Ferry 11,000 troops 
and Brigadier-general White, 73 pieces of artillery, 12,000 
small arms, about 200 wagons, and a large amount of supplies, 
ammunition and clothing. The federal loss in killed and 
wounded was not very heavy. That of the confederates was 
very slight. 

General Jackson modestly announced his victory in the, fol- 
lowing dispatch : 

Hbadqcasters Valley District. \ 
September 16th, 1862. / 

Colonel :. Yesterday God crowned onr arms with another brilliant suc- 
cess, on the surrender at, Harpers Ferry, of Brigadier-peaeral Wbite .and 
ll,00n troops, an equal number of small arms, 73 piece? of artillery, aad 
?.bout 200 wagons. 

Jn addition to other stores, there is a large amount of camp and garri- 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 9g 

son equipage. Onr loss ia very s|jall. The meritorious conduct of officers 
and men will be mentioned in a more detailed report. 

I am, colonel, your obedient servant, 

_ T. J. Jackson, Maj. Gen. 

Col. R. H. Chilton, A. A. G. 

While these events -^ere transpiring at IJarpers Ferry, 
others of equal importance were occurring in^Maryland. The 
column of General D. H. Hill had been left, to guard the 
passes of the So.uth mountain. On the 14th .of September, 
General McClellan came up with Genera] Hill and engaged 
him. Seeing Hill so sorely pressed, and feeding assured that 
Harpers Ferry would fall the next day, General Lee moved 
up with Longstreet's column tQj.his aswstan.ee. The enemy 
•were "held in check, and during t^efnig'rft the srmy withdrew 
towards the Potomac,, halting on the banks of the Anjjietam 
creek, near the village of Sharpsburg. 

It was expected' ^hat Harpers Ferry would fall on the 13th, 
and if this. had -been the case, the object of the campaign being 
accomplished, the army of General Lee could have retired 
across the Potomac without fighting the battles of Boonsboro' 
or Sharpsburg. But the obstacles were »iore formidable than 
ihad been anticipated; and as ^arpers.Ferr^ had not fallen 
•when McClellan came up with D. H. Hill, it was necessary to 
fight him in order to cover the operations of General Jackson ; 
and upon finding that the federals pressed so closely upon him 
after leaving Boonsboro', Genera) Lee -saw that it would be 
necessary to fight McClellan again in order to check his ad- 
vance, and secure a safe passage of the Potomac. He ac- 
cordingly sent orders to General Jackson to rejoin him at once 
at Sharpsburg. The army had been greatly weakened by sick- 
ness and -other causes, but especially by the straggling of the 
men, which had been indulged in to a shameful extent. OVer 
thirty thousand men had been lost to the army in this way, 
since the march from the Rapidan began. 

On Monday,, General Jackson received General Lee'e order 



g4 L1EUTENANT-GENEEAL 

to join him. McLaws and Walker, with their forces, crossed 
over to Harpers Ferry ; a small force was left to hold the place 
until the captured articles articles could be removed, and in 
the afternoon the- corps began thejaarch up the river to rejoin 
General Lee. * 

On Thursday, the 16th, .General Jackson with his own and 
Ewell's divisions, reached the army on the Antietam, and dis- 
posed his forces to take part in the approaching battle. The 
rest of his command were hurrying on, but had not yet come 

up. 

General Lee's.-army was drawn up on the Antietam creek, a 
small stream, near the .town of Sharpsburg. The town lies in 
a deep valley, through which, windg the creek. On the east, is 
a high mountain ridge, sunning nearly from North to South. 
The country is very undulating. The right wing of the army, 
under General Longstreet, rested at the base of the mountain 
judge ; the centre, under General D. H. Hill, at Sharpsburg, 
and the left, .(consisting of his two divisions) «under General 
Jackson, about a mile to the left of the town. 

The enemy appeared in front of General Lee's .position 
about three or foui» o'clock on Monday afternoon, but made 
no attack. Tuesday was spent by General McClellanin mass- 
ing his troops on his right for the pu-rpose of endeavoring to 
turn the confederate left flank. Late on Tuesday evening, 
heavy skirmishing occurred between the two armies. - 

On the eve of a great battle, General Lee's affective force 
did not number thirty-five thousand men, and of these, three 
divisions (McLaws, A. P, Hill and Walker) were yet to come 
up. The enemy had over one hundred thousand of .'his best 
troops. 

At three o'clock on the morning of the 17th of September, 
the* troops were under arms. At daylight the pickets com- 
menced skirmishing. Soon after this the enemy opened a 
heavy artillery lire upon the confederate position, and the 
battle had fairly begun. Between six and seven o ; clock, the 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 95 

main, body of the enemy* was hurled with terrific force against 
Ew#l's divisioH (under Lawfcpn) in a desperate attempt to turn 
the confederate left flank, *nd from this division the.fight ex- 
tended to Jackson's own. The Southern troops were largely 
out-numbered, but fought with great efficiency. The enemy 
had concentrated his best troops for his attempt to turn Gene- 
ral Lee"'s left, and for two hours and a half the battle raged 
with varying success. Large numbers had been lost on both 
sides, and finally Swell's hardy veterans, borne down by supe- 
rior numbers, began to give way. At this moment, Hood, who 
had been ordered to General Jackson's assistance, dashed into 
the fight, and the troops of General Lawton rallying quickly, 
a fresh stand was made against the enemy, and soon the fede- 
ral columns were driven back. Receiving reinforcements, they 
again forced the confederates to retire, having succeeded by 
mere superiority of numbers in outflanking (General Jackson, 
whose men retired slowly, hotly contesting every inch of 
ground. Bight federal batteries were now in full play upon 
the troops under General Jackson, while huge swarms of 
Northern infantry pressed heavily upon them. McLaws had 
r?ow come up, and General Lee ordered him to Jackson's as- 
sistance. As McLaws brought up his division, Jackson's men 
were nearly exhausted and almost out of ammunition. -Bring- 
ing his reinforcements into action with a skilful hand, and ad- 
vancing his whole line, General Jackson swept down upon the 
enemy with impetuosity and' drove them before him at all 
points. For half an hour longer the battle raged furiously, 
and then the enemy began to retreat. They were driven from 
the field, and at one point pursued for nearly a mile. The en- 
gagement on the left ceased at half-past ten o'clock, and was 
not renewed by the enemy during the day. They contented 
themselves with endeavoring to prevent General Jackson from 
driving back their lines from their original position. 

Soon after the close of the fight on the left, the federals at- 
tacked General D. H. Hill's position at Sharpsburg. Frevi- 



96 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

ous to this, an artillery fight, which? commenced at sunrise, 
had been going on at this point. , About twelve o'clock $Hbol- 
uinn of federal infantry crossed itte Antietam, and advanced 
upon the Confederate centre, while other troops were hurried 
over the creek to the assistance of the first column. 

The confederate artillery receiving the fire of the federal 
guns without returning it, directed their attention to the in- 
fantry, and uniting their efforts with those of the Southern 
infantry, drove back assault after assault, inflicting heavy 
losses upon the enemy. Finally they were driven back in 
confusion across the Antietam. 

It was now one o'clock in the afternoon, and a lull in the 
battle occurred, which lasted for two hours. At three o'clock 
the approach of A. P. Hill with the rest of Jackson's forces 
was announced. The confederate force on the extreme right 
did not now exceed sin thousand men, while the enemy were 
seen approaching, about fifteen thousand strong, to attack it. 
Charging in one solid mass, they endeavored, by their great 
weight, to break and drive back the Southern line. In this 
they were well nigh successful. The artillery poured a de- 
structive fire into their ranks, but filling up the gaps they dashefl 
on with spirit. The Southern infantry resisted their advance 
right manfully, but at last, having fired their last cartridge, 
began to give way. It wfes four o'clock, and the fate of the 
day was trembling in the balance. At this moment A. P. 
Hill, the Blucher of the day, dashed forward with his hardy 
veterans, and throwing them upon the enemy, engaged them 
in an obstinate conflict, which, about six o'clock, resulted in 
the federals being driven, with broken and shattered ranks, 
back over the Antietam. Night coming on, the battle ended. 
The enemy had been driven back at all points, and the confed- 
erates were left in pcssession # of the field. 

The confederate loss in this battle was about 7,000 men, in- 
cluding Generals Starke and Branch killed, and Generals An- 
derson, Lawton, Wright, Ripley and Armistead wounded. The 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 97 

enemy lost about 25,000 men, including Generals Hooker, 
Haitsuff, Duryee, Richardson, Sedgwick, French, Sumner, 
Dana, Meagher, Ricketts, Weber and Rodman wounded. They 
claimed to have won a great victory. This, as has been seen, 
was untrue. They were defeated at every point. 

On Thursday morning the enemy were not to be found. 
They had abandoned their position during the night, and had 
withdrawn a short distance from the field. During the day 
several "flags of truce" came in from the enemy;' asking per- 
mission to bury the dead. The requests were refused, because 
they did not come from General McClellan. All of the 
wounded, except those who were too badly hurt to be removed, 
were carried from the field, and the army remained in posses- 
sion of the battle ground during the entire day. At night 
General Lee withdrew his troops, and, recrossing the Potomac, 
retired into Virginia. 

In order to defend his passage of the Potomac, General Lee 
placed General* Pendleton, with forty or fifty pieces of artil- 
lery and three brigades of infantry, at Boteler's mill, near 
Shepherdstown, on the right bank of the river. After the 
army had crossed, this force, supported by another, all under 
General A. P. Hill, was left to watch the enemy, while the 
main body of the army retired a few miles beyond Shepherds- 
town. 

On Friday, the 19th, the enemy appeared in large force, on 
the opposite side of the river, and wishing to decoy them over, 
General Hill withdrew his main body from sight and left a 
very weak force confronting them. 

On the next day, (Saturday, the 20th of September) the 
Federal commander crossed a large column and made an effort 
to capture the little band. As soon as the enemy had gotten 
fairly over, General Hill advanced his troops, and falling sud- 
denly upon them, drove them across the river with great 
slaughter. So great was their confusion and fright, that, 
although the river was scarcely more than knee deep, many 
13 



9g LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

were drowned in crossing. The confederates poured a with- 
ering fire into them, and the river was. in many places, lite- 
rally black with their corpses, and, it is said, the water was 
red with their blood for a mile below the ford. The enemy 
lost 2,500 men, and the confederates 250. 

After recrossing the Potomac, General Lee withdrew his 
army to Martinsburg and began the work of reorganization. 
Stragglers were picked up and brought in, and the army gradu- 
ally resumed its former proportions. 

The campaign in Maryland had been eminently successful. 
In commencing the narration of it, I asserted that it was Gen- 
eral Lee's object to capture the federal force at Harpers Ferry. 
If this assertion be true it is impossible to deny that the cam- 
paign was successful. But if it was the object of General Lee 
to liberate the state of Maryland, the campaign was a failure. 
In the absence of official information, we can only speculate 
upon the probable designs of General Lee ; but with the plain 
facts before us, I think we can arrive at a very fair estimate 
of the object of General Lee in invading the state of Mary- 
land. 

When his army reached Pleasant Valley, General Lee had 
a choice of two routes leading into Maryland : he could cross 
the Potomac either near Seneca falls, or in the neighborhood 
of Poolsville. By crossing at the former place, he would be 
nearer Washington, and by a rapid march would be enabled to 
seize the only railroad leading to the city, and cut off its com- 
munications with the North. If forced to retreat, the way 
was open through Montgomery county. He would then be in 
a portion of Maryland where he would be surrounded by friends, 
and where thousands would flock to his standard. He could, 
in case of necessity, aid the city of Baltimore and Lower Ma- 
ryland in throwing off the federal yoke ; and if he could hold 
the army of General Pope within the lines of Washington, he 
would have every reason to hope for success. But if he should 
enter the state by the latter route, he would be in a section 



THOMAS J. JACKSOK. 99 

hostile to him, far removed from the federal capital and the 
friends of the South, and with a large federal army between 
himself and Southern Maryland. The liberation of Maryland 
must necessarily be a slow progress and accompanied with very 
great risk. In the present condition of affairs, the South was 
not prepared to attempt it. But a tempting prize lay within 
the grasp of the confederate commander. The stronghold of 
Harpers Ferry, 'with its large garrison and immense quantities 
of stores, might, by a bold movement, be captured. The gar- 
rison would thus, for a time, be lost to the federal service, and 
the stores, of which the South' stood greatly in need, secured 
to her. To capture Harpers Ferry General Lee resolved, and 
for this purpose the army entered Maryland,. 

At Frederick city, General Lee issued a proclamation, invi- 
ting the Marylandei'S to rise in defence of their liberties. An 
accomplished writer, who is not an admirer of General Lee, 
says that "his proclamation at Frederick, offering protection 
to the Marylanders, is incontrovertible evidence of the fact 
that the object of the campaign was to occupy and hold the 
state." I admit that at first this seems to be true. But a 
closer examination of the subject must convince every unpre- 
judiced person that the proclamation of General Lee affords 
no such evidence. In this proclamation General Lee no wheiv 
asserts his intention to occupy and hold the state. He says 
the people of the South sympathise with Maryland, and wish 
to see her freed from the tyranny of her foes, and adds : "In 
obedience to this wish our army has come among you and is 
prepared to assist you with the power of its arms in regaining 
the rights of which you have been deprived."' 

In this announcement I can no where see the assertion of a 
determination to liberate the state or to occupy and hold it- 
General Lee states that the army is '• prepared" to assist the 
people, but does not say that it his purpose to remove the fede- 
ral voke from Maryland. It was necessary for the army bo 
place the Marylanders in a condition to rise before t'liey could 



200 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

avail themselves of the offer ; and this had not been done. Of 
course, if they should rise against the federals it would be a 
Treat gain for General Lee. I do not think that he expected 
them to rise, and I am convinced that his proclamation was 
issued for the purpose of deceiving the enemy as to his real 
intentions — a measure which he could embrace with perfect 
propriety. The permanent occupation of Maryland would 
have been of incalculable value to the South, but what good 
would have resulted from the occupation of the Western por- 
tion of it, sixty miles from Baltimore, with a large hostile army 
between Washington and Frederick, I am at a loss to discover. 
The proclamation, which those who pronounce this campaign 
"a failure," hold up as such "incontrovertible evidence" of 
the truth of that assertion, was issued on the 8th of Septem- 
ber 1862. On the morning of the 10th, the army left Frede- 
rick and moved towards Hagerstown, thus increasing the dis- 
tance between itself and Washington and its friends, but 
drawing nearer to Harpers Ferry. Surely General Lee could 
not expect his proclamation to be scattered through the state, 
and the friends of the South to flock to him from a distance 
varying from sixty to one hundred and twenty miles, in the 
short space of two days. And if he had wished them to rise, 
why should he have moved his army farther from them. It 
is certainly more reasonable to suppose that in this case, he 
would have moved nearer to Washington, and either have 
crossed the Monocacy himself, or have prevented the passage 
of it by the army of General McClellan, which, he knew, was 
preparing to advance upon him.. Every movement of his army 
was towards Harpers Ferry, and affords "incontrovertible evi- 
dence" that it was his object to capture that place. Of the 
events which would have followed the capture of Harpers 
Ferry, I am, of course, unprepared to speak ; but I do not 
believe that General Lee expected to fight either at Boons- 
boro' or Sharpsburg. The delay in the capture of Harpers 
Ferry, necessitating a protection of Jackson's operations, and 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 101 

the rapid advance of McCIellan, forced him to fight at those 
places, and added new laurels to the wreath that already en- 
circled his brow. 

The assertion of the enemies of General Lee, must, there- 
fore, fall to the ground, when opposed by a fair and unpreju- 
diced statement of facts. 

In support of my argument, I append the following extract 
from a letter written to the London "Times," by a corres- 
pondent, who was furnished by General Lee himself with such 
information, as it was proper to reveal, concerning the cam- 
paign. He says : 

"It is generally stated that the confederate authorities cal- 
culated upon a rising in Maryland directly their army entered 
that state. Nevertheless, everybody to whom I spoke on the 
subject ridiculed the idea of ever having thought that any 
such rising would ever take place, until either Baltimore was 
in their hands, or they had at least established a position in 
that country, as it was well known that the inhabitants of 
Washington and Frederick counties were far from being unani- 
mous in their opinions, and that in many districts there, the 
Unionists were considerably in the majority."' 

After remaining in Martinsburg a short time, General Lee 
removed his army to Winchester. The enemy occupied Har- 
pers Ferry and the left bank of the Potomac as far as Wil- 
liamsport, occasionally throwing bodies of troops into Virginia. 

While the army lay at Winchester, General Jackson was 
charged with the duty of watching the enemy. About the 
middle of October, General McCIellan crossed his army at 
Harpers Ferry aud-Williamsport, and moving forward, occu- 
pied Charlestown in Jefferson county, and Kearneysville, on 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Severe skirmishing oc- 
curred along the lines daily. On the 17th of October the 
enemy moved forward from the Potomac towards Martinsburg. 
General Jackson at once advanced upon them and drove them 
rapidly across the river. Remaining with his command for 



|()2 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

tome time in the neighborhood of the Potomac, he inflicted 
great damage upon the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, tearing 
up the track and burning bridges. That portion of the road 
extending from Sir John's run, in Morgan county, to a point 
within a few miles of Harpers Ferry, a distance of about forty 
miles, was entirely destroyed. 

General McClellan lay idly watching General Lee until late 
in October. His forces were more numerous and better 
equipped than those of the confederate commander, but he had 
suffered too severely from his skill and the bravery of his 
troops, to wish to attack him again. The federal government 
sent General McClellan repeated orders to advance upon Gene- 
ral Lee, but he contrived to evade the execution of them, 
knowing that his safety lay in inaction. At last, having re- 
ceived peremptory orders to advance, he moved, the main body 
of his army east of the Blue Ridge, sending the corps of 
General Burnside in advance. His object was to seize the 
passes of the Blue Ridge, hold the army of General Lee in 
check, and force that officer either to remain in the Vallev or 
to move and pass the mountains nearer to Staunton, while he 
would send a strong column to attack Richmond. The plan 
was well laid, but not deep enough to baffle the penetration 
of General Lee. Scarcely had McClellan put his troops in 
motion, when Longstreet's corps passed the Blue Ridge and 
moved towards Culpeper. General Jackson was . left behind 
to watch McClellan, to prevent him from occupying the moun- 
tain passes, and to check any pursuit of Longstreet that might 
be attempted. 

McClellan pressed on. General Jackson moving his forces 
from point to point, confused him as to his intentions, and pre- 
vented him from occupying the gaps through which he desired 
to pass his own troops. Baffled by the superior skill of Gene- 
ral Jackson, and finding; that General Lee had outa;eneralled 

7 O CD 

him again, McClellan began massing his troops in the region 
of Culpeper. When the plans of the enemy were fully devel- 



THOMAS J. .JACKSON. J 03 

oped, General Jackson withdrew his troops, passed the moun- 
tains and rejoined General Lee. The Federal army continued 
to move on and reached Warrenton. Here General MeClellan 
was deprived of his command by his government, and was- suc- 
ceeded by General Burnside. 

General Burnside finding that General Lee was determined 
to prevent him from passing the Upper Rappahannock, re- 
solved to move his army lower down, and crossing the river 
at Fredericksburg, to throw himself between Richmond and 
General Lee. He at once began to move his army down the 
Rappahannock, hoping by attracting Lee's attention in another 
direction to accomplish this movement in secresy. ^But Gene- 
ral Lee was watching him closely, and as soon as he was satis- 
fied as to the intentions of the federal commander, moved his 
army rapidly towards Fredericksburg. 

General Sumner commanded the advance corps of General 
Burnside s army, and when he arrived opposite Fredericks- 
burg, demanded of the mayor and council the surrender of 
the place. This was on the 21st of November. The city au- 
thorities, acting under instructions from General Lee, refused 
to comply with the- demand. General Burnside hurried for- 
ward with the remainder of his army, but when be reached 
the hills of Stafford, opposite Fredericksburg, he found the 
army of General Lee occupying the heights in the rear of the 
town. '* 

General Burnside determined to make the Rappahannock 
his base of operations against Richmond, and fortified his po- 
sition. The hills in the rear of Fredericksburg were strongly 
fortified by the confederates, and for some time the two ar- 
mies lay watching each other. 

On the 11th of December, General Burnside crossed the 
Rappahannock and occupied Fredericksburg. 

The army of General Lee was posted on the hills which lie 
in the rear of the town, and which enclose it in almost a semi- 
circle, the centre being about four miles from the river. The 



1QJ. LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

country between the hills and the river is to a great extent 
open and very little broken. Immediately above the tcvwn and 
on the left of the Confederate position, the bluffs are bold and 
-without trees or undergrowth. As the, range of hills extends 
to the eastward, the elevation decreases, and they become 
more thickly wooded. The left was within rifle range of the 
town, and by far; the strongest point of the line. The centre 
and right were weaker, the enemy enjoying many advantages 
in attacking them of which they were deprived on the left. 
The left was held by General Longstreet's corps, while Jack- 
son was posted on the right. The order of the various divi- 
sions, procWling from left to right, was as follows : Ander- 
son's on the extreme left, afterwards Ransom's, McLaws', 
Pickett's and Hood's — these comprising Longstreet's corps ; 
then A. P Hill's and Taliaferro's of Jackson's corps. The 
cavalry under General Stuart were posted on the extreme right 
of the line, which stretched along the hills from Fredericks- 
burg j^on the left,) to the Massaponax creek (on the right.) 
Swell's (now under. Early) and D. H. Hill's divisions had been 
stationed near Port Royal to prevent a passage of the river at 
that point by the enemy, and as soon as Burnside revealed his 
intentions, were ordered back. They reached the field about 
9 o'clock on the morning of the battle, and took position on 
the right to act as a support, to the rest of Jackson's corps. 

About nine o'clock on the morning of the 13th of Decem- 
ber, the enemy advanced a heavy column to attack General 
Jackson's position, their movement being partially concealed 
by a heavy fog that overhung the entire field. General A. P. 
Hill had been posted with his division at Hamilton's Cross- 
ings — the centre of the confederate line — and upon this point 
the federal attack was directed. 

As soon as the enemy were seen approaching, General Stu- 
art moved forward his horse artillery under Major Pelham, 
and opened an enfilading fire upon them, doing great execution. 
At the same time the troops of General Hill became hotly en- 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 105 

gaged. The confederates had the advantage in position, hut 
the enemy greatly outnumbered them. Twice the enemy furi- 
ously assailed General Jackson's position. Once, two of Hill's 
brigades were driven back upon his second line, and the enemy 
succeeded in occupying a portion of the woods on the crest. 
But their success was of short duration, for Early hurrying 
forward with a part of his division, fell upon them with fury, 
drove them from the hill and across the plain below, and only 
ceased his pursuit when his men came under the fire of the 
federal batteries on the opposite side of the river. The right 
of the enemy's column, extending beyond Hill's front, took 
possession of a copse of woods in front of the position of 
General Hood, but were quickly driven from it with loss. 

Soon after the repulse of the attack on the right, the enemy 
made a furious charge upon the Southern left under General 
Longstrect. They approached gallantly — the Irish division 
being in the advance. These troops fought with desperation, 
but in vain. From Marye's IHBWalton's guns and McLaws' 
infantry hurled a fearful fire uyon them, and swept them back 
with torn and shattered ranks into the town. About dark the 
enemy made a last assault upon the hill, supported by a ter- 
rible fire from the federal batteries on the opposite side of the 
river. They were again repulsed and driven into the town. 

The losses sustained by the enemy in these several attacks 
were very great, and the remnants of that splendid army, 
which had so vauntingly crossed the Rappahannock, crowded 
at night into Fredericksburg in the greatest demoralization 
and confusion. They ran through the streets and cowered in 
the cellars, positively refusing to go back to the field again. 
Had General Lee opened his guns upon the town that night, a 
perfect massacre and the destruction of the greater portion of 
the federal army would have ensued. 

The next day General Burnside gave orders for a second 
advance upon the confederate lines, but the troops refused to 
obey them ; and hfe general officers representing this to him r 
14 



106 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

induced him to recall his orders. The day was spent in bury- 
ino- the dead and caring for the wounded. On Monday, the 
15th, the enemy continued in Fredericksburg, but made no de- 
monstration, and at night, under the cover of a severe storm, 
recrossed the river. 

The confederate loss in this engagement was about 1,800, 
including Generals T. R. R. Cobb and Gregg. The enemy's 
loss has been estimated at from twenty to twenty -five thousand 
men, including Generals Bayard and Jackson killed, and sev- 
eral generals wounded, and 1,626 prisoners. 

During the battle, General Jackson was conspicuous for his 
gallantry. Just before the battle began, he rode along the 
lines dressed in a handsome new uniform, the gift of a friend. 
It was his habit to dress very plainly, and his men had grown 
accustomed to watch for their general just before the battle 
began, never failing to recognize him by the old slouched hat 
and the faded gray uniform, when too far off to distinguish his 
features. Never before ha^Biey failed to shout until the 
heavens rung, when they saw mjn approach. Now they glanced 
carelessly at the officer in the handsome uniform, and gazed 
impatiently up and down the lines, wondering why " Old Stone- 
wall" did not appear. After he had passed them, it became 
known to them that the officer in the fine uniform was their 
general, and they gave vent to many exclamations of regret 
at having suffered him to pass them without cheering him. It 
is related of him, that as the action began, he was standing by 
General Lee, watching the advance of the enemy. The gal- 
lant Pelham was bravely contending against a heavy fire from 
the federal batteries. Turning to General Jackson, General 
Lee exclaimed : 

"It is inspiriting to see such glorious courage in one so 
young." 

General Jackson replied in his quiet, firm way : 

" With a Pelham upon either flank, I could vanquish the 
world." 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 107 



v >. 



Shortly after this, General Longstreet asked him,#milirv>h 
as he pointed to the federal column which was approaching to 
attack the right : 

"Are you not scared by that file of yankees you have before 
you, down there?" 

" Wait till they come a little nearer," replied General Jack- 
son, "and they shall either scare me, or I'll scare them." 

At a critical period of the engagement, General Lee sent an 
aid with an order to General Jackson. The officer was search- 
ing for him in the midst of a heavy fire from the enemy, when 
he heard some one exclaim : 

" Dismount, sir ! dismount ! You will certainly be killed 
there !" 

Glancing around, he saw General Jackson lying flat upon his 
back, upon the ground, while the balls were whistling all 
around him. Alighting, ho gave him General Lee's order. 
Making the officer lie down by him, General Jackson read the 
message, and turning over wrote a reply. Handing it to the 
aid, he resumed his original position in the coolest and most 
unconcerned manner imaginable. 

During this battle there was witnessed a spectacle, which, 
although it was now so familiar to the men, was unsurpassed 
by any seen that day. Riding forward a short distance in 
front of the army, and uncovering his head, and raising his 
eyes to Heaven, General Jackson prayed the God of battles to 
be with the army that day. The troops looked on with soft- 
ened hearts, and it would have fared badly with the wretch 
who could have dared to make light of such a scene in die 
presence of one of Jackson's men. 

After the battle of Fredericksburg, the army continued to 
hold its position on the hills, awaiting the advance of the 
enemy. General Jackson busied himself in looking after his 
men and trying to make them comfortable. 

During the- second session of the first congress,^early in 
1863) the president was authorized to confer upon a certain 



108 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

number of officers of the army the rank of lieutenant-general. 
As soon as this law was passed, the president conferred upon 
General Jackson (among others) the new rank. 

Late in April, the movements of General Hooker, now in 
command of the federal army, began to assume a significant 
character, and it became evident that a great battle was soon 
to be fought. 

One evening late in April, General Jackson was conversing 
with a member of his staff, and giving his reasons for believing 
that a great battle was at hand. As the conversation pro- 
gressed, he became unusually excited. Suddenly pausing, he 
was silent for some moments, and then said humbly and reve- 
rently, "My trust is in God." Then, the true spirit of the 
warrior rising within him, he raised himself to his full height, 
and exclaimed proudly, while his noble features glowed with 
enthusiasm — " I wish they would come !" 

Having determined to cress the Rappahannock, General 
Hooker began to put his plan into execution. On the 28th of 
April he crossed a column at Deep run below Fredericksburg, 
and in front of General Early's position. After severe skir- 
mishing, Early forced this column to remain close to the shore 
of the river. Hoping to divert General Lee's attention to the 
column at Deep ran, and thus conceal his own movements, 
General Hooker, after leaving a strong corps at Falmouth, 
under General Sedgwick, moved his main army about twenty- 
five miles up the Rappahannock, and crossed the river. The 
column at Deep run was then withdrawn to the Stafford 
side. It was General Hooker's intention to occupy a strong 
position above Fredericksburg, and thus force General Lee 
either to submit to an attack in his rear, or to leave his works 
on the Spotsylvania hills and come out and fight him in the 
open field, where he hoped that his superior numbers would 
give him the victory. As soon as General Lee should ad- 
vance tdfcieet him, Sedgwick was to cross the river at Freder- 
icksburg and fall upon Lee's flank. In order to cut off Gene- 



THOMAS J. JACKSON". lU'.i 

ral Lee's communications with Richmond and deprive him of 
assistance, General Stoneman, with the cavalry, was to fall 
sudden!}- upon the Fredericksburg and Central railroads, de- 
stroy them, and then do what other damage he could. 

About noon on the 29th of April, General Lee was informed 
that a large force of the enemy had crossed the Rappahan- 
nock at Kelley s and Ellis' fords, and were pressing towards Ely's 
and Germanna fords on the Rapidan. Two small brigades of 
Anderson's division (Posey's and Mahone's) had been stationed 
for some time at these points to guard the approaches to Fred- 
ericksburg. Unable to stand before the pressure of Hooker's 
heavy columns, they retired to Chancellorsville, where they 
determined to make a stand. General Wright was at once 
ordered to their assistance, and reached Chancellorsville at 
daylight on the morning of the 30th. General Anderson had 
come up during the night, and having received more accurate 
information respecting the strength of the enemy, determined 
to fall back to a point five miles nearer Fredericksburg, where 
the road leading from United States ford, (called the old Mine- 
road) crosses the Orange and Fredericksburg plank road. This 
point was reached about eight o'clock in the movninjr. and 
General Anderson, disposiug his forces in line of battle, re- 
solved to hold his position until he could receive assistance 
from General Lee. His force consisted of scarcel}* more than 
five thousand men, while Hooker brought with him nearly his 
whole army. The enemy halted at Chancellorsville. 

The position held by the army of General Hooker was very 
strong. His left rested at Chancellorsville, while his right 
stretched away towards Wilderness creek. 

Chancellorsville consists of one large brick house, and is 
situated about fifteen miles west of Fredericksburg and four 
miles southwest of the Rapidan, at the point where the main 
road from Ely's ford falls into the plank road. About four or 
five miles west of Chancellorsville, is a rugged country covered 
with a thick and tangled and apparently impenetrable growth 



HO LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

of stunted oaks, called the Wilderness. Scattered here and 
there through this Wilderness are cleared spots, varying in 
size from fifty to one hundred acres. Through the midst of 
these woods winds a narrow and tortuous road. Upon the 
cleared spots General Hooker erected strong breastworks, and 
behind them posted his artillery and infantry. To approach 
these works, an attacking force must either advance by the 
road, which could be swept by the artillery, or force their way 
through the woods. A stronger position could not have been 
chosen, and it is no wonder General Hooker considered it "im- 
pregnable." Strong intrenchrnents had also been thrown up 
in the vicinity of Chancellorsvifie, and, thus prepared, Gene- 
ral Hooker felt confident of success. 

Being informed of General Anderson's situation. General 
Lee ordered General Jackson to go to his assistance. He set 
out with his corps on Thursday night, and reached General 
Anderson's position at eight o'clock the next morning, the 1st 
of May. 

Resolving to inflict a severe punishment upon General Hooker, 
General Lee had ordered General Jackson to turn his right 
flank, cut off his retreat by the way in which he came, drive 
him out of the Wilderness and force him back upon Chancel- 
iorsville. Leaving a small force under General Early to. hold 
his original position in the rear of Eredericksburg, he moved 
towards Chancellorsville with the rest of the army to engage 
the enemy's attention, and enable General Jackson to execute 
his hank movement. As soon as General Jackson came up 
with Anderson's division, he ordered an advance upon the 
enemy. The brigade of General Wright, supported by that 
of General Posey, moved forward up the plank road, while Ma- 
hone's, supported by Perry's, advanced up the turnpike. The 
divisions of Generals A. P Hill and Rhodes were held in reserve 
to be moved upon any point that necessity might require. In a 
short time the confederate skirmishers became engaged with 
those of the enemy, and drove them back upon their mainline, 



TilCGUS J. .TACKSOX. HI 

two miles from Chancellorsville. The enemy were admirably 
posted along a line of thick woods in the rear of a lar^c, open 
space. Advancing his troops rapidly, General Jackson en- 
gaged them, and soon the action became general along the 
whole front,. and continued for about an hour. At the expira- 
tion of that time General Jackson ordered General Wright to 
file his brigade off to the left of the plank road, and moving to- 
wards the enemy's right, to fall upon. them at that point, while 
General Posey would continue to engage them in front. Mo- 
ving on in the direction indicated, General Wright reached 
the track of the Orange and Fredericksburg railroad, and kept 
up that road until he reached an iron furnace about two miles 
from Chancellorsville. He was met here by General Stuart, 
who was maneuvering in the neighborhood, and informed that 
the enemy were posted in the woods between the furnace and 
Chancellorsville, and half a mile from the furnace. He was 
now completely in the rear of the force which General Posey 
was engaging in front, and, changing his direction soon came 
up with them. After a sharp engagement he succeeded in 
driving them from the woods into the open country around 
Chancellorsville. Receiving a reinforcement of artillery from 
General Stuart, he soon drove them across the open country 
and into the woods on the opposite side. Night coming on, 
the firing ceased. 

As soon as Wright commenced his vigorous attack upon the 
enemy's flank and rear, the federal troops in front of General 
Jackson's position began to give way, and when night came 
they had been driven back to Chancellorsville. 

General Wright was now ordered to a point on the plank 
road, near the iron furnace, and the main body of the army 
passed the night there. 

The night was quite cool. Seeing General Jackson without 
any covering or protection of any kind, one of his aids offered 
him his cape, and after much persuasion induced him to accept 
it. During the night he was fearful that the young man might 



1 12 LIIlUTEifANX-GENERAL 

take cold from being deprived of his cape, and rising softly, 
threw it over him as he lay asleep, and then lying down again, 
passed the night without any thing around him. This pro- 
duced a cold, which afterwards resulted in pneumonia. He 
was always careful of the comfort of others, even at the sac- 
rifice of his own ease. 

The next morning, the 2nd of May, the remainder of the 
army having come up, General Jackson moved off in the di- 
rection of the enemy's right flank, intending to turn it and 
drive it back upon Cliancellorsville. Leaving McLaws and 
Anderson to engage the enemy in front, he carried with him 
the divisions of Generals A. P Hill, Rhodes and Trimble. 
(The last general being sick, his division was commanded by 
Brigadier-general Colston.) Several times during the day the 
enemy advanced their lines towards the positions of Generals 
McLaws and Anderson, but were, each time driven back to 
their works around Cliancellorsville. 

Moving cautiously and swiftly around the federal right, Gen- 
eral Jackson, a little before sunset, succeeded in gaining the 
rear of their position in the Wilderness. Advancing his lines, 
he at once made a spirited attack upon the works which the 
federal commander had pronounced impregnable. Scrambling 
through the tangled undergrowth, through which a terrible 
storm of balls swept without a moment's cessation, the confed- 
erates dashed madly upon the works and drove the enemy from 
them in confusion. Bearing heavily upon them, General Jack- 
son forced them out of the Wilderness, and pressed them back 
upon Cliancellorsville. It was now dark, and the battle ended. 
Had there been two hours more of daylight, General Jackson 
would have gotten his forces completely between the enemy 
and the river, and have cut off all hope of their escape. 

The battle of the Wilderness was one of the most desperate 
as well as one of the most brilliant engagements of the, war. 
The enemy were strongly entrenched in the depths of a coun- 
try which had been pronounced impassable, and yet in spite of 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 113 

all these obstacles, General Jackson, with a smaller force, had 
penetrated the Wilderness, storraWfl^he fortifications, driven 
the -enemy from them in confusion, and doubled up their right 
wing upon their centre. In this engagement General A. P 
Hill was slightly WQivnded. 

Aiter tLo oatile closed. General JacWfeon* accompanied by 
his staff, a portion of General Hill's staff and his couriers, rode 
forward to reconnoitre the position of the enemy. Before 
leaving las lines ho gave orders to fire upon any one approach- 
ing by the road. Upon finishing his observations, and discov- 
ering the enemy's skirmishers approaching, he turned to ride 
back, forgetting, doubtless, the orders that he had given. As 
the party came near the Southern lines, they were mistaken 
for a body of federal cavalry and fired upon. General Jack- 
son was strTick by three balls. One entered the left arm, two 
inches below the shoulder joint, shattering thehone and sever- 
mg the principal artery; another entered the same arm be- 
tween the elbow and the wrist, passing out through the palm of 
the hand, and the third entered the palm of the right hand, 
about the middle, and passing through, broke two of the bories. 
This occurred about 8 o'clock in the evening, on the plank 
road, about fifty yards in advance of the enemy. One of 
General Jackson's staff and two couriers were killed, and 
another staff officer wounded by this discharge. General Jack- 
son at once fell from his horse, and was caught by Captain 
Wormley. He said to him calmly, as that officer knelt by 
him r ">A11 my wounds are by own men." 

The firing was now resumed by both armies. General Jack- 
son was at once pheed upon a litter, and started for the rear. 
He had to be carried along the line of fire, and one of the 
litter bearers was shot down, and the general was thiewa 
heavily to the ground, adding to the iujuvy done to nis arm, 
and hurting his eide severely. Seeing that it would be impos- 
sible for the litter-bearers to carry him from the field under 
.such a heavy fire, General Jackson directed them to leave him 
15 



J34 I/IEUTENANT-GENBRAL 

until it slackened, and for five minutes he was left alone, ex- 
posed to the fearful storm of balls that swept the field thickly 
all around him. When the firing slackened, he was placed in 
an ambulance and carried to the hospital near Wilderness run. 

As he was being carried from the field, frequent enquiries 
were made by the men, "Who have you there?" He turned 
to the surgeon, who was with him, and said: 

"Do not tell the troops I am wounded." 

He lost much blood, and but for the application of a tourni- 
quet, would have bled to death. For two hours he was almost 
pulseless. At one time he thought he was dying, and the tour- 
niquet was applied. 

General Hill being disabled by his wound, General Stuart 
was sent for, and took command of Jackson's corps. The 
next day, the enemy were routed and driven from Chancellors- 
ville to the banks of the Rappahannock. On the same day 
General Sedgewick crossed at Fredericksburg, and carried the 
hills in the rear of the place. On Monday (4th May,) 
General Lee moved back with a portion of his army, and drove 
Sedgewick across the river. Having disposed of Sedgewick, 
he again advanced upon Hooker, who was lying .close to the 
banks of the Rappahannock. A severe storm delayed his 
movement, and Hooker taking advantage of it, retreated across 
the river. After General Jackson was carried to the hospital, 
and had recovered slightly from the great prostration caused 
by the loss of so much blood, Drs. Black, Coleman, McGuire 
and Walls, the surgeons in attendance upon him, hel$ a con- 
sultation with reference to his wounds, and decided that ampu- 
tation was necessary. Dr. McGuire approached the General, 
and asked him : 

"If we find amputation necessary, shall it be done at once?" 

General Jackson replied promptly, and firmly : 
"Yes! certainly — Dr. McGuire do for me whatever you 
■think right." 

The operation was performed while the General was under 



THOMAS i< JACKSON, 115 

the influence of chloroform, and he bore it well. Sometime 
afterwards, he stated to a friend that his sensations in taking 
chloroform were delightful, that he was conscious of everything 
that was done to him, that the sawing of his bone sounded like 
the sweetest music, and every feeling was pleasant. 

As soon as General Jackson was wounded, he senl; infor- 
mation of the sad event to General Lee. The messenger 
reached his headquarters about four o'clock on Sunday morn- 
ing, and found the commander-in-chief resting upon a bed of 
straw. Upon being informed of General Jackson's misfortune, 
he exclaimed : 

"Tfe^ink God it is no worse: God be praised he is still alive." 
Then he added: " Any victory is a dear one that deprives us 
of the services of Jackson, even for a short time." 

The officer who brought the information remarked that he" 
believed it was General Jackson's intention to have pressed 
the enemy on Sunday, had he been spared General Lee said 
quietly: "These people shall be pressed to-day." Rising and 
dressing, he partook of his simple meal of ham and- crackers' 
and set out for the field. The history of that day proved that 
he remembered his promise. 

After the defeat of Hooker, General Lee addressed to Gene- 
ral Jackson, the following noble letter* which is characteristic 
of him: 

"General: I have just received your note informing me that you were 
wounded. I cannot express my regret at the occurrence. Could' I have 
dictated events, I should have chosen for the good of the country, to have 
been disabled in your stead. , 

"I congratulate'you upon the victory which is due to your skill and en- 
ergy." 

When this note was read to him, (it is said,) General Jack- 
Son exclaimed with emotion : 

"Far better for the Confederacy that ten Jacksons should 
have fallen, than one Lee." Then he added, calmly and hum- 
bly: "General Lee should give the glory to God." 



;Q§ LIEUTENANT- GENERAL 

On Sunday morning hie slept for a short while. During the 
day he was very cheerful. Pointing to his mutilated left arm, 
he said to one of his aids : 

" Many people would regard this as a great misfortune. I 
regard it as one of the greatest blessings of my life." 

The officer replied: "All things work together for good to 

those that love God." 

"Yes! yes!" was the earnest reply. "That's it." 

He sent for Mrs. Jackson, who was in Richmond. 

He asked many questions about the battle of the previous 
day, and spoke cheerfully of the final result. Turning to a 
friend, he said : „* 

"If I had not been wounded, or had had an hour more of 
daylight, I would have cut off the enemy from' the road to the 
United States ford, and we would have had them entirely sur- 
rounded, and they would have been obliged to surrender, ox- 
cut their way out ; they had no other alternative. My troops 
may sometimes fail in driving the enemy from a position," he 
added with a smile; "but the enemy always fail to drive my 
men from a position." 

He spoke in the highest terms of the conduct of General 
Rhodes during the battle, and said that he had fairly won his 
major-general's commission, which ought to date from the day 
of the battle. General Jackson had conferred this rank upon 
him, on the field, and the president afterwards confirmed it. 
He complained during the day of the effects of his fall from 
the litter, though as yet, they were not visible. 

On Sunday night he slept well. 

On Monday he was carried to Chancellor's house, near 
Guinea's station. He was still cheerful, and questioned those 
around him as to the battiq of Sunday. When he was told of 
the grand charge of his old "Stonewall brigade," led by 
General Stuart in person, how with the shout " charge and re- 
member Jackson!" they pressed on, in that irresistible ad- 
vance, over the dead and the dying, and how with torn and 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 1]T 

mangled ranks, they ..drove the enemy from the field, his eyes 
flashed, his breast heaved, and he exclaimed with deep emo- 
tion: -* , T* ' 



"It was just like them ! it was just like them ! They are 
a noble body of men." 

Afterwards he remarked that, "the men who live through 
this war will be proud to say to their children, 'I was one of 
the St0 2P" aI1 brigade.'" He also said that the- term " Stone- 
wall" belonged to his old brigade, rather than to himself; and 
insisted that it should be called by it. He was very much af- 
fected by the news of the death of his friend, General Pa.x- 

During his sufferings, his mind very frequently ran upon re- 
ligious subjects. Speaking with one of his staff as to whether 
those who were miraculously cured by Jesus, ever had a return 
of the disease, he exclaimed: 

"I do not think they could have returned, for the power 
was too great — the poor paralytic would never again shake 
with palsey Oh! for infinite power." 

While he was being carried to Guinea's, he complained of 
the intense heat, and asked that a wet cloth might be placed to 
his stomach. This was done, and he seemed to be greatly re- 
lieved. On Monday night he slept well. 

On Tuesday he seemed to be better and ate with relish. 
During the day he asked his surgeon : 

""Can you tell me from the appearance of my wounds, how 
long I will be kept from the field?" 

He was told that he was doing remarkably well, and if he 
continued to improve, it would not be long. Soon after thishe 
expressed a wish to see the members of his staff, but was ad- 
vised not to do so, as he needed repose. 

On Wednesday his wounds seemed to be improving. It had 
been arranged that he should go to Richmond to-day, but a 
rain prevented it. At night he slept very badly. His sur- 
geon, who had been without sleep for three nights, was advi- 



US J^l '•■■ k TEN Ah 1-GENERAL 

sed to take some rest, and while he was asleep, General Jack- 
son complained of sickness, and ordered his servant to place a 
wet cloth to his stomach. About daylight, the surgeon was 
awakened by this servant, who informed him that the General 
was suffering great pain. Upon examination it was found that 
pneumonia had set in, resulting from his exposure on the night 
before the battle. His system was took weak and exhausted 
to cast it off, and the disease increased alarmingly. 

On Thursday Mrs. Jackson arrived from Richmond. This 
gave him great satisfaction, and he seemed to improve under 
the faithful nursing of his wife. He was in pain during the 
day, but at night all pain had left him. Still he suffered 
greatly from prostration. 

On Friday he was free from pain, but the prostration in- 
creased. 

Saturday passed away, and he grew feebler every hour. 

On Sunday morning it was evident to all that he was sink- 
ing rapidly. Mrs. Jackson was informed of this, and request- 
ed to make it known to her husband. 

Upon this day he was very calm and cheerful and endeavor- 
ed to cheer those around him. Turning to his wife, he said to 
her tenderky: 

"I know you would gladly give your life for me, but I am 
perfectly resigned. Do not be sad — I hope I shall recover. 
Pray for me, but always remember in your prayers to use the 
petition, ' Thy will be done.' " 

He advised her in the event of his death, to return to her 
father's home, and added: 

"You have a kind, good father. But there is no one so 
kind and good as your heavenly father." 

During his illness he manifested towards all around him and 
especially to his wife, a greater degree of gentleness and ten- 
derness, than was usual with him. It Avas the calm sternness- 
of the warrior giving place to the outgushings of a pure and 
noble heart. When the surgeons told his wife that he could 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 119 

not live more than two hours, she informed him of the fact. 
He replied that he was willing to die, and added : 

"It will be infinite gain to be translated to heaven, and be 
with Jesus." 

It had ever been with him, a cherished wish to die on the 
sabbath, and now God was about ty grant his wish. It had 
been his custom to see that religious services were held regu- 
larly in his camp, and early on Sunday morning, he asked who 
was to preach to the men that day, and upon learning that 
they would not be deprived that day of their accustomed ser- 
vices, seemed satisfied. 

After parting with his wife, and his friends, and sending 
messages to the various Generals with whom he had been as- 
sociated, and to his men, and expressing a wish, that he had 
frequently mentioned before, that General Ewell should suc- 
ceed him in the command of his corps, and his desire to be 
buried in Lexington, Virginia, he became slightly delirious. 
Occasionally in his wanderings, he would speak of some reli- 
gious subject, and then give an order. Among his last words, 
he was heard to exclaim : 

"Order A. P Hill to prepare for action." "Pass the in- 
fantry to the front." "Tell Major Hawks to send forward 
provisions to the men." "Let us cross over the river, and 
rest under the shade of the trees." 

Then he sank gradually, and at fifteen minutes after three 
o'clock, in the afternoon of the tenth of May, he expired 
peacefully. His soul had passed over the dark river and was 
resting under the trees of heaven. The brief but eventful 
life of this great and good man was ended, and now in his 
fortieth ^sar, he was lost to his country that needed him so 
much. 

The news of the wounding of General Jackson filled the 
: army with the most profound and undisguised grief. His men 
loved him devotedly, and he was the idol of the whole army. 
Many stout-hearted veterans, who had, under his guidance, 



|20 LIEUTENANT-GENERAL 

borne hardships and privations innumerable, and dangers the 
most appalling, without a murmur, wept like children when 
told that their idolized,Jgeneral was no more. The death of 
General Jackson was communicated to the army by General 
Lee in the following order : 



• 



Headquap.tee3 Army of Northern Virginia, | 

Miy 1Kb, 1863. / 

General Orders No. CI. 

With deep grief the commanding general announces to the "array, the 
death of Lieutenant-general T. J. Jackson, who expired on the 10th inst., 
at quarter past three P M. The daring, skill and energy of this great and 
f;-ood soldier, by the decree of an All-Wise Providence, are now lost to us. 
But while we mourn his death, v/e feel that his spirit still lives, and will in- 
spire the whole army with his indomitable courage, and unshaken confi- 
dence in God, as our hope and strength. Let his nam; be a watchword to 
his corps, who have followed him to victory on so many fields. Let his of- 
ficers and soldiers emulate his invincible determination to do everything in 
the defence of our beloved country. 

R. E. Lee, General. 

Throughout the country the news of the wounding of Gene- 
ral Jackson had carried the greatest grief and alarm. The 
people had learned to look upon him as the great champion of 
the South, and they were filled with serious apprehension, 
when they contemplated the probability of losing his services. 
The greatest anxiety to hear from him, was everywhere mani- 
fested; for therj was not a heart in the South that did not 
throb more warmly, when the name of " Stonewall Jackson" 
was mentioned. A week of long and anxious suspense passed 
away, and at last, when all were, to a certain degree prepared 
for it, the news came that the idol of the South was no more. 
The first information of the death of General Jackson was 
telegraphed to the governor of Virginia, and then hurried all 
over the land, carrying sorrow wherever it went. 

On Monday morning the 11th of May, it was announced 
that the remains of General Jackson would reach Richmond 
during the day, and the mayor of the city at once requested 
all persons to suspend bus inc.? s after ten o'clock, in token of 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 121 

their respect for the departed hero. All stores, workshop, 
the government departments, and all places in which !-.'S>r 
was performed, were closed. Flags were hung at half wM, 
and a deep silence reigned over the capital of Viv^. ,a. 
Large crowds filled the streets, and in spite of the intense L-.at, 
waited patiently for the arrival of the cjrs from Fredericks- 
burg. 

Shortly after four o'clock in the afternoon, the special train 
containing the precious burd .n, moved slowly into the city. 
Only the solemn peals of the bells as they tolled their mourn- 
ful knell, broke die deep silence th.-t reigned over everything. 

At the depot the coffin was removed from the cars, and 
placed in a hearer to be carried to the mansion of the gover- 
nor. The escort which received it, consisted of Major-gene- 
ral Elzey and sraff, the State Guard of Virginia, with colors 
shrouded in mourning, the forty-fourth North Carolina, aiid 
the first Virginia regiments, (after which came the hearse, and 
General Jackson's staff) the city authorities and citizens on 
foot. 

The remains were escorted to the mansion of the governor, 



and placed in the reception parlor. The lid of the coffin "'-.is 
removed, the ne>- flag of the Confederacy, which had n<-- -a- 
before been used for any purpose, was thrown over it, an.i i 
single wreath of laurel laid upon the lifeless breast. Dur;:.g 
the evening his friends were allowed to visit the body. The 
only change that was perceptible, was that the features seem; d 
somewhat smaller than they were in life. But there was still 
the firm, grave expression which had always dwelt there, and 
above all, there rested upon the lifeless countenance, an ex- 
pression of happiness and peace, so perfect and so intense, 
that the gazer was awed and thrilled by it. 

During the night the body was embalmed, and a plaster cast 
of his features taken, in order that they might be preserved 

in marble. 

16 



X22 LIEUTENANT- GENEllAk 

The next day, all the honors that his native state could lavish 
upon her noble son, were heaped upon him. At eleven o'clock 
his body was removed from the executive mansion, and con- 
veyed with appropriate ceremonies to the capitol of Virginia. 

The procession was formed in the following order, the troops 
marching with reversed arms : 

A brass band. 
The 19th regiment of Virginia infantry. 
The 56th regiment of Virginia infantry. 

The State guard of Virginia. 

Major-general Pickett and staff, mounted. 

A battery (6 pieces) of artillery. 

A squadron of cavalry. 

THE HEARSE, 

containing the coffin, 

With MaJQr-general Ewel!, Brigadier-generals Winder, Churchill, Corse, 

Stuart, (G. H.) Kemper and Garnett, and Admiral Forrest 'of 

the navy, as pall bearers. 

The favorite horse of General Jackson, fully caparisoned and led by his 

servant. 
The members of the old " Stonewall brigade," who were present in the city- 

A band of music. 

Major-general Elzey and staff. 

The officials of the military department of Henrico. 

A carriage containing the president of the Confederate States. 

The members of the cabinet on foot. 

The heads of bureaux, and their clerks, on foot. 

The governor of Virginia and his aids. 

The state officers and clerks. 

The mayor and city authorities. 

The judges of the state and confederate courts. 

Citizens on foot. 

The procession moved from the executive mansion, down 
Governor street into Main, up Main to Second, through Sec- 
ond to Grace, and down Grace to the capitol square. 

The streets were filled with large crowds. The mournful 
eortege moved on in silence, which was only broken by the 
solemn strains of music, and the discharge of artillery at in- 
tervals of half an hour. Tears rolled down many cheeks, and 



THOMAS J. JACKSON. 123 

hundreds who had known General Jackson only bv his great 
deeds, wept as though mourning for a brother. Such an uni- 
versal outburst of grief had never been witnessed in Virginia, 
since the death of Washington. 

Upon the arrival of the procession at the square, the column 
was halted, the body removed and borne into the capitol, where 
it was laid in state in the hall of the house of representatives 
of the Confederate States. 

At least twenty thousand persons visited the hall to behold 
the remains of the hero that day. 

The next morning the remains were placed on a special train 
and conveyed to Lynchburg. It was hoped that General Jack- 
son would be buried in Hollywood cemetery, near Richmond. 
There Virginia has prepared a last resting place for her hon- 
ored children. There rest the ashes of Monroe and Tyler and 
many of the good and brave of this revolution, and it was 
hoped that there too would rest the dust of General Jackson. 
But it was his wish to sleep in his dearly loved home in the 
Valley, and thither all that remained of him was carried. On 
Wednesday morning the remains passed' through Lynchburg. 
Minute guns were fired, bells were tolled, and a large proces- 
sion of citizens followed the body through the city. 

On Thursday afternoon they reached Lexington. They 
were met at the canal by the corps of cadets, the professors of 
the Institute, and a large number of citizens, and escorted to 
the Institute barracks. 

The body of General Jackson was placed in the old lecture 
room, which had once been his. Two years ago he had left it 
an humble and almost unknown man ; now he returned to it 
with the hero's laurel wreath encircling his brows, and en- 
shrined forever in the hearts of his countrymen. With the 
exception of the heavy mourning drapery with which it wps 
hung, the room was just as he had left it. It had not been 
occupied during his absence. The body was deposited just in 
front of the chair in which he used to sit. It was a beautiful 



124 UBUTEXANT-GENEKAL T. J. JACKSON. 

and a touching scene, and brought tears to every eye that wit- 
nessed it. 

Guns were fired every half hour during the day, and the 
deepest grief exhibited by every one. 

The next day, the 15th of May, General Jackson was buried 
in the cemetery at Lexington, where rest the remains of his 
first wife and child. 



He has gone, but his spirit is still with his countrymen. Oh ! 
mav it animate each heart and nerve each arm to strike, as he 
struck, for the freedom of the land. 

There in the beautiful Valley of Virginia, with which his 
name is so imperishably connected, the hero lies sleeping. 
Around him " the everlasting hills" keep eternal guard, and 
the deep and unwavering love of his stricken, but still glori- 
ous mother, watches with tender devotion over his sacred dust. 
Ages shall roll away, empires crumble into dust, nations pass 
away, but the memory of Jackson will still shine out in all its 
clear and radiant splendor. And when the last great trump 
shall sound, and the dim light of the resurrection morn shall 
break away the gloom which overshrouds the world, Virginia, 
whose pure heart beats but for God and duty, shall there be 
found still watching by the tomb of Jackson. 

And yet, he is not Virginia's alone : God gave him to the 
■world. 



APPENDIX 



As everything connected with the name of Jackson is pre- 
cious to the South, it may not be out of place to append here 
several interesting incidents. 

Colonel Ford, an officer of the federal army, relates the fol- 
lowing incident which occurred at Harpers Ferry : 

"While we were in conversation," he says, "an orderly rode 
rapidly across the bridge and said to General Jackson, ' I am 
ordered by General McLaws to report tb you that General 
McClellan is within six miles .with an immense army.' Jackson 
took no notice of the orderly apparently, and continued his 
conversation ; but when the orderly had turned away, Jackson 
called after him, with the question, ' Has McClellan any bag- 
gage train or drove of cattle ?' The reply was that he had. 
Jackson remarked that he could whip any army that was fol- 
lowed by a flock of cattle, alluding to the hungry condition of 
his men." 



The Rev. Dr. Moore, of Richmond, in a sermon in memory 
of Jackson, narrates the following incident : 

"Previous to the first battle of Manassas, when the troops 
under Stonewall Jackson had made a forced march, on halting 
at night they fell on the ground exhausted and faint. The 
hour arrived for setting the watch for the night. The officer 
of the day went to the general's tent and said, ' General, the 
men are all wearied, and there is not one but is aslo%p. Shall 
I wake them ?' ' No,' said the noble Jackson, ' let them sleep, 
and I 'will watch the camp to-night.' And all night long he 



126 APPENDIX. 

rode round that lonely camp, the one lone sentinel for that 
brave, but weary and silent body of Virginia heroes. And 
when glorious morning broke, the soldiers awoke fresh and 
readv tor action, all unconscious of the noble vigils kept over 
their slumbers. 



A correspondent of the Knoxville Register writes as follows 
of an interview with Jackson a few days before his death : 

" After a visit to the Rappahannock army, the writer of 
this made a parting call on General Jackson in his tent.,. As 
we stood exchanging the last words, some reference was made 
to Avhat our ladies are doing. ' Yes,' said he, ' but they must 
not entice the men away from the army. You may tell them 
so for me. We are fighting for principle, for honor, for every 
thing we hold dear. If we fail, we lose everything. We shall 
then be slaves — we shall be worse than slaves — we shall have 
nothing worth living for.' " 



The Central Presbyterian publishes a letter written to a 
friend by General Jackson about army chaplains. It says: 

"Denominational distinctions should be kept out of view — 
and not touched upon. And as a general rule, I do not think 
that a chaplain who would preach denominational sermons 
should be in the army. His congregation is his regiment, and 
is composed of various denominations. I would like to see no 
questions asked in the army what denomination a chaplain 
belongs to, but let the question be, does he preach the gospel? 
The neglect of the spiritual interests of the army may be seen 
from the fact that not half of my regiments have chaplains." 



After the death of General Jackson, the officers and men of 
the old " Stonewall brigade" met and passed a series of reso- 
lutions, which were but a feeble expression of their feelings. 
The following is an account of their proceedings : 



APPENDIX. 121 



, Camp Paxton, (near Fredericksburg, Va.) 

May 16, 1863. 

At the appointed hour there was a full attendance of officers 
and men of the brigade. 

The meeting was organized by the selection of Colonel 
Charles Ronald, 4th Virginia, as president, and Adjutant 
Robert W Hunter, as secretary. 

On motion of Captain H. K. Douglas, a committee of three, 
consisting of Colonel Nadenbousch, 2nd Va., Major William 
Terry, 4th Va., and Adjutant R. W Hunter, 2nd Va., was 
appointed to prepare appropriate resolutions. The committee 
retired, and, after consultation, reported through Adjutant 
Hunter, the following preamble and resolutions, which were 
unanimously adopted : i 

Whereas, it has pleased Almighty God, in the exercise of 
supreme, but unsearchable wisdom, to strike down, in the midst 
of his career of honor and usefulness, our glorious hero, Lieu- 
tenant-general T. J. Jackson, the officers and men of this bri- 
gade, which he formerly commanded, who have followed him 
through the trying scenes of this great struggle, and who, by 
the blessings of Providence, under his guidance, have been 
enabled to do some good in our country's cause ; who loved 
and cherished him as a friend, honored him as a great and 
good man, laboring with hand and" heart and mind for our 
present and future welfare ; who obeyed and confided in him 
as a leader of consummate skill and unyielding fortitude, and 
who now mourn his loss, unite in the following tribute of re- 
spect to his memory : 

Resolved 1. That in the death of Lieutenant-general Jack- 
son the world has lost one of its best and purest men — our 
country and the church of God "a bright and shining light" — 
the army one of its boldest and most daring leaders, and this 
brigade a firm and unwavering friend. 

Resolved 2. That General Jackson has closed his noble 
career by a death worthy of his life, and that while we mourn 
for him, and feel that no other leader can be to us all that he 
has been, yet Ave are not cast down or dispirited, but even more 
determined to do our whole duty, and, if need be, to give our 
lives for a cause made more sacred by the blood of our martyrs. 

Resolved 8. That, in accordance with General Jackson's 
wish, and the desire of this brigade to honor its first great 
commander, the secretary of war be requested to order that it 



1S6 APPENDIX. 

be known and designated as the "Stonewall brigade;" and 
that in thus formally adopting a title which is inseparably con- 
nected with his name and fame, we will strive to render our- 
selves more worthy of it, by emulating his virtues, and, like 
him, devote all our energies to the great work before us, of 
securing to our beloved country the blessings of peace and in- 
dependence. 

Resolved 4. That a copy of these proceedings be forwarded 
to the widow of the deceased, and published in the newspapers 
of the city of Richmond, with a request that they be copied 
by the papers throughout the state. 

Captain H. K. Douglas addressed the meeting in a feeling 
manner ; among other things, stating that it was the general's 
wish that his old brigade should be known as the Stonewall 
brigade, and moved in this connection, that a committee of five 
be appointed to correspond with the secretary of war, in order 
to carry out the 3rd resolution of the meeting. 

The chair named the following committee : Colonel Funk, 
oth Va. ; Lieutenant-colonel Colston, 2nd Va. ; Major Terry, 4th 
Va. ; Captain Frazier, 27th Va. ; Captain Bedinger, 83rd Va. 

Major Terry submitted the following resolutions: 

Resolved 1. That it is the desire of this brigade .to erect 
over the grave of Lieutenant-general Jackson, a suitable monu- 
ment. 

Resolved 2. That a committee of five be appointed to carry 
into eifect the above resolution ; and that for the purpose, the 
committee be clothed with full power to appoint a treasurer 
and sub-committees in each regiment, to collect funds, adopt 
designs, inscriptions, &c. 

The resolutions were passed unanimously, and the following 
committee appointed : Colonel J. Q. A. Nadenbousch, 2nd Va. ; 
Captain Strickler, 4th Va. ; Lieutenant-colonel Williams, 5th 
Va. ; Lieutenant-colonel Shriver, 27th Va., and Lieutenant- 
colonel Spongier, 33d Va. 

On motion, the meeting adjourned. 

C. A. Ronald, President, 

R. W Hunter, Secretary.